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the application of scientific knowledge for practical purposes, especially in industry.
“advances in computer technology”
machinery and equipment developed from the application of scientific knowledge.
“it will reduce the industry’s ability to spend money on new technology”
the branch of knowledge dealing with engineering or applied sciences.
They gave the power or the wisdom, knowledge and understanding of God another meanings called technologies
But then, let us start from the bible where all technologies come from.
First, the bible says that God created the heavens of heavens and earth in 6 days.
How did God do these, by His power in which wisdom, or knowledge, understanding or His Spirit are the instruments of creation. God spoke the word and they came to being. God is wisdom , knowledge and understanding and in all His creations in heavens of heavens and earth
The above are images of fridges and freezers worked by human beings with the wisdom, knowledge and understanding or the Spirit of God which the world calls electricity. Yes human beings changed the wisdom of God that they used in making these things to their own names. But they should know that it is God that is called wisdom, knowledge or understanding or Spirit according to the bible that gave them the knowledge and the understanding to do the works and they should acknowledge Him. You read the passage below from the bible to know what wisdom is. Wisdom, knowledge and understanding are the Spirit of God that human beings cannot see with their naked eyes.
The book of Proverbs chapter 8.1-36.
1 Doth not wisdom cry? and understanding put forth her voice?
2 She standeth in the top of high places, by the way in the places of the paths.
3 She crieth at the gates, at the entry of the city, at the coming in at the doors.
4 Unto you, O men, I call; and my voice is to the sons of man.
5 O ye simple, understand wisdom: and, ye fools, be ye of an understanding heart.
6 Hear; for I will speak of excellent things; and the opening of my lips shall be right things.
7 For my mouth shall speak truth; and wickedness is an abomination to my lips.
8 All the words of my mouth are in righteousness; there is nothing froward or perverse in them.
9 They are all plain to him that understandeth, and right to them that find knowledge.
10 Receive my instruction, and not silver; and knowledge rather than choice gold.
11 For wisdom is better than rubies; and all the things that may be desired are not to be compared to it.
12 I wisdom dwell with prudence, and find out knowledge of witty inventions.
13 The fear of the LORD is to hate evil: pride, and arrogancy, and the evil way, and the froward mouth, do I hate.
14 Counsel is mine, and sound wisdom: I am understanding; I have strength.
15 By me kings reign, and princes decree justice.
16 By me princes rule, and nobles, even all the judges of the earth.
17 I love them that love me; and those that seek me early shall find me.
18 Riches and honour are with me; yea, durable riches and righteousness.
19 My fruit is better than gold, yea, than fine gold; and my revenue than choice silver.
20 I lead in the way of righteousness, in the midst of the paths of judgment:
21 That I may cause those that love me to inherit substance; and I will fill their treasures.
22 The LORD possessed me in the beginning of his way, before his works of old.
23 I was set up from everlasting, from the beginning, or ever the earth was.
24 When there were no depths, I was brought forth; when there were no fountains abounding with water.
25 Before the mountains were settled, before the hills was I brought forth:
26 While as yet he had not made the earth, nor the fields, nor the highest part of the dust of the world.
27 When he prepared the heavens, I was there: when he set a compass upon the face of the depth:
28 When he established the clouds above: when he strengthened the fountains of the deep:
29 When he gave to the sea his decree, that the waters should not pass his commandment: when he appointed the foundations of the earth:
30 Then I was by him, as one brought up with him: and I was daily his delight, rejoicing always before him;
31 Rejoicing in the habitable part of his earth; and my delights were with the sons of men.
32 Now therefore hearken unto me, O ye children: for blessed are they that keep my ways.
33 Hear instruction, and be wise, and refuse it not.
34 Blessed is the man who heareth me, watching daily at my gates, waiting at the posts of my doors.
35 For whoso findeth me findeth life, and shall obtain favour of the LORD.
36 But he that sinneth against me wrongeth his own soul: all they that hate me love death.
This is the wisdom that God impacted into mankind to develop things, to make things and to invent things called technologies. This wisdom of God is also called His spirit which human beings cannot see and yet it is in every human being. It is also called the power of God, or His wisdom or His Spirit. E
Fans of all shapes and sizes are designed by human beings using the wisdom of God which is from the word of God from the bible. God made us to know that He is the only living God that can give wisdom, knowledge and understanding to all mankind in the doings of all things in this world. God’s wisdom, knowledge and understanding are the Spirit of God also called God’s power
Read the reference from the bible where God was speaking to Moses
2 See, I have called by name Bezaleel the son of Uri, the son of Hur, of th tribe of Judah:
3 And I have filled him with the spirit of God, in wisdom, and in understanding, and in knowledge, and in all manner of workmanship,
4 To devise cunning works, to work in gold, and in silver, and in brass,
5 And in cutting of stones, to set them, and in carving of timber, to work in all manner of workmanship.
6 And I, behold, I have given with him Aholiab, the son of Ahisamach, of the tribe of Dan: and in the hearts of all that are wise hearted I have put wisdom, that they may make all that I have commanded thee;
Cooking utensils designed by human beings using the knowledge, understanding and wisdom of God.
Below is from the bible about wisdom that can only come from God Almighty.
5 If any of you lack wisdom, let him ask of God, that giveth to all men liberally, and upbraideth not; and it shall be given him.
All the technologies of the world are done by the wisdom, knowledge and understanding of God. It doesn’t matter who you are or whatever names you give to your inventions. All things in the heavens of heavens and earth are made by God’s wisdom, knowledge and understanding. And all human beings should acknowledge God in whatever they do. God is the architect of all things in the heavens of heavens and earth
1 In the beginning God created the heaven and the earth.
2 And the earth was without form, and void; and darkness was upon the face of the deep. And the Spirit of God moved upon the face of the waters.
3 And God said, Let there be light: and there was light.
4 And God saw the light, that it was good: and God divided the light from the darkness.
5 And God called the light Day, and the darkness he called Night. And the evening and the morning were the first day.
6 And God said, Let there be a firmament in the midst of the waters, and let it divide the waters from the waters.
7 And God made the firmament, and divided the waters which were under the firmament from the waters which were above the firmament: and it was so.
8 And God called the firmament Heaven. And the evening and the morning were the second day.
9 And God said, Let the waters under the heaven be gathered together unto one place, and let the dry land appear: and it was so.
10 And God called the dry land Earth; and the gathering together of the waters called he Seas: and God saw that it was good.
11 And God said, Let the earth bring forth grass, the herb yielding seed, and the fruit tree yielding fruit after his kind, whose seed is in itself, upon the earth: and it was so.
12 And the earth brought forth grass, and herb yielding seed after his kind, and the tree yielding fruit, whose seed was in itself, after his kind: and God saw that it was good.
13 And the evening and the morning were the third day.
14 And God said, Let there be lights in the firmament of the heaven to divide the day from the night; and let them be for signs, and for seasons, and for days, and years:
15 And let them be for lights in the firmament of the heaven to give light upon the earth: and it was so.
16 And God made two great lights; the greater light to rule the day, and the lesser light to rule the night: he made the stars also.
17 And God set them in the firmament of the heaven to give light upon the earth,
18 And to rule over the day and over the night, and to divide the light from the darkness: and God saw that it was good.
19 And the evening and the morning were the fourth day.
20 And God said, Let the waters bring forth abundantly the moving creature that hath life, and fowl that may fly above the earth in the open firmament of heaven.
21 And God created great whales, and every living creature that moveth, which the waters brought forth abundantly, after their kind, and every winged fowl after his kind: and God saw that it was good.
22 And God blessed them, saying, Be fruitful, and multiply, and fill the waters in the seas, and let fowl multiply in the earth.
23 And the evening and the morning were the fifth day.
24 And God said, Let the earth bring forth the living creature after his kind, cattle, and creeping thing, and beast of the earth after his kind: and it was so.
25 And God made the beast of the earth after his kind, and cattle after their kind, and every thing that creepeth upon the earth after his kind: and God saw that it was good.
26 And God said, Let us make man in our image, after our likeness: and let them have dominion over the fish of the sea, and over the fowl of the air, and over the cattle, and over all the earth, and over every creeping thing that creepeth upon the earth.
27 So God created man in his own image, in the image of God created he him; male and female created he them.
28 And God blessed them, and God said unto them, Be fruitful, and multiply, and replenish the earth, and subdue it: and have dominion over the fish of the sea, and over the fowl of the air, and over every living thing that moveth upon the earth.
29 And God said, Behold, I have given you every herb bearing seed, which is upon the face of all the earth, and every tree, in the which is the fruit of a tree yielding seed; to you it shall be for meat.
30 And to every beast of the earth, and to every fowl of the air, and to every thing that creepeth upon the earth, wherein there is life, I have given every green herb for meat: and it was so.
31 And God saw every thing that he had made, and, behold, it was very good. And the evening and the morning were the sixth day.
God made man from the dust of the earth.This by the power of God, the dust of the earth became flesh, bones, sinuses, veins, water, blood, brains and many of the components in all human beings. Can you imagine these changes by the power of God or the wisdom of God. The scientists changed the power of God and call it transition, or metamorphosis. But God is the architect of this change who the scientists won’t acknowledge or to give Him glory. Every human being is the image of God and God had given him or her wisdom to do things.
The above are the images of Big Bang in different shapes and sizes made known to us by the wisdom of God through human beings. Even though they did not acknowledge God in all their works, but God is the God that gave them the wisdom to find them out, whatever the names the Big Bang people gave to them, but God calls all their doings His power or His knowledge, understanding or wisdom.
How God made human beings
7 And the LORD God formed man of the dust of the ground, and breathed into his nostrils the breath of life; and man became a living soul.
The breathe that God breathe into the nostrils of formation of man from the dust and became a living soul, this is the power of God or the Spirit of God or the word of God and is called life as well. Jesus Christ confirmed the in the passage below
According to the bible, the word of God, God’s wisdom, knowledge and understanding are the Spirit of God which human beings cannot see. No one can see the word wisdom, or knowledge or understanding. That’s why human beings do not want to acknowledge God.
63 It is the spirit that quickeneth; the flesh profiteth nothing: the words that I speak unto you, they are spirit, and they are life.
The dust that God used to make man became flesh
14 And the Word was made “flesh, “ and dwelt among us, (and we beheld his glory, the glory as of the only begotten of the Father,) full of grace and truth.
The word flesh in the above quotation from the bible means life or humanity
The image above is the anatomy of a human being. The people who made us to know the works of God inside a human body should give the Almighty God glory for giving the wisdom, knowledge and understanding in doing this work.
Nobody can do anything without the wisdom, knowledge and the understanding of God. People have been undermining God for centuries when they say that they invented one thing or the other without acknowledging God who gave them the wisdom , knowledge and understanding to invent it. No invention without the wisdom of God. No knowledge is without the wisdom of God. All through the ages many people have tried to take God out of the equation of all the things that God created and discredited God and take the place of God of all creations. But whoever you are, scientists, evolutionists, philosophers and many other names that claim to invent things, I tell you that God is the power behind all the technologies in the world.
The above images are the cookers that we use on our daily cooking. Yes human beings invented them, but the wisdom, knowledge and the understanding came from God.
The first ever anaesthetic came from the Almighty God as you read it from the quotation from the bible.
In the book of Genesis 2.21
21 And the LORD God caused a deep sleep to fall upon Adam, and he slept: and he took one of his ribs, and closed up the flesh instead thereof;
This action of God making Adam to go into a deep sleep, that he could not feel the pain of God removing a rib from Adams, is what the scientists called anaesthetic. But called it His power.
The first ever cloning came from God. But God did not call it cloning. God called it His wisdom, knowledge and understanding or His Spirit. The problem with human beings is that they read the bible but they fail to ask God to understand what they read or they refused to read the bible to know more about God who is the one working in all human beings.
God’s power which the scientists called cloning.
Then from the rib that God removed from Adam the first human being, was what God made into a woman. This what the scientists called cloning. But God called it His power. Also God is the first and only God who performed operation on the first man Adam without forceps which no man on this planet earth has been able to do. God did it by His power. These are the more reasons why the whole world must acknowledge, obey, trust, believer, love and give glory to God the source of all their inventions. To be very honest, these people carry God about in their 24/7 of their lives. How? The Spirit of God is in every human being on this planet earth
Genesis 1.26, 27,
26 And God said, Let us make man in our image, after our likeness: and let them have dominion over the fish of the sea, and over the fowl of the air, and over the cattle, and over all the earth, and over every creeping thing that creepeth upon the earth.
27 So God created man in his own image, in the image of God created he him; male and female created he them.
Human beings praising God, the creations of God.
7 And the LORD God formed man of the dust of the ground, and breathed into his nostrils the breath of life; and man became a living soul.
Where you acknowledge God or not, you are carrying God in you
John 1. 3 & 4
All things were made by him; and without him was not any thing made that was made.
4 In him was life; and the life was the light of men.
5 And the light shineth in darkness; and the darkness comprehended it not.
Whether you an atheist, philosophers, Big Bang people, scientists or evolutionists, you are carrying Hod in you and without God in you, you cannot not exist.
Mind you readers, I am not here to defend God, who am I to do that. All the works of God are facts and are the defence of God that God is the creator of all things in heavens of Christ and the earth. Nobody can defend God, He is a defence of Himself. But I by the Spirit of God beings this little article to the knowledge and the understanding of some of the people out there that do not acknowledge all the works of God to think again and know for sure that whatever names that they gave to the creations of God are all by the power of God.I have seen or heard many people who have the audacity to say that they is no God. This their statement is ambiguous and very insulting to the Almighty God, whom they carry about every 24/7. I have said this before in one of the articles that God inspired me to write. I challenge those who say that there is no God to the just one of the following things below on the televisions for the whole world to see it.
Anatomy of the Brain
The brain is an amazing three-pound organ that controls all functions of the body, interprets information from the outside world, and embodies the essence of the mind and soul. Intelligence, creativity, emotion, and memory are a few of the many things governed by the brain. Protected within the skull, the brain is composed of the cerebrum, cerebellum, and brainstem.
The brain receives information through our five senses: sight, smell, touch, taste, and hearing – often many at one time. It assembles the messages in a way that has meaning for us, and can store that information in our memory. The brain controls our thoughts, memory and speech, movement of the arms and legs, and the function of many organs within our body.
The central nervous system (CNS) is composed of the brain and spinal cord. The peripheral nervous system (PNS) is composed of spinal nerves that branch from the spinal cord and cranial nerves that branch from the brain.
The brain is composed of the cerebrum, cerebellum, and brainstem (Fig. 1).
A side view illustration of the human brain, with areas labeled and colored
Figure 1. The brain has three main parts: the cerebrum, cerebellum and brainstem.
Cerebrum: is the largest part of the brain and is composed of right and left hemispheres. It performs higher functions like interpreting touch, vision and hearing, as well as speech, reasoning, emotions, learning, and fine control of movement.
Cerebellum: is located under the cerebrum. Its function is to coordinate muscle movements, maintain posture, and balance.
Brainstem: acts as a relay center connecting the cerebrum and cerebellum to the spinal cord. It performs many automatic functions such as breathing, heart rate, body temperature, wake and sleep cycles, digestion, sneezing, coughing, vomiting, and swallowing.
Right brain – left brain
The cerebrum is divided into two halves: the right and left hemispheres (Fig. 2) They are joined by a bundle of fibers called the corpus callosum that transmits messages from one side to the other. Each hemisphere controls the opposite side of the body. If a stroke occurs on the right side of the brain, your left arm or leg may be weak or paralyzed.
Not all functions of the hemispheres are shared. In general, the left hemisphere controls speech, comprehension, arithmetic, and writing. The right hemisphere controls creativity, spatial ability, artistic, and musical skills. The left hemisphere is dominant in hand use and language in about 92% of people.
Left and right hemispheres
Figure 2. The cerebrum is divided into left and right hemispheres. The two sides are connected by the nerve fibers corpus callosum.
Lobes of the brain
The cerebral hemispheres have distinct fissures, which divide the brain into lobes. Each hemisphere has 4 lobes: frontal, temporal, parietal, and occipital (Fig. 3). Each lobe may be divided, once again, into areas that serve very specific functions. It’s important to understand that each lobe of the brain does not function alone. There are very complex relationships between the lobes of the brain and between the right and left hemispheres.
Lobes of the brain
Figure 3. The cerebrum is divided into four lobes: frontal, parietal, occipital and temporal.
Personality, behavior, emotions
Judgment, planning, problem solving
Speech: speaking and writing (Broca’s area)
Body movement (motor strip)
Intelligence, concentration, self-awareness
Interprets language, words
Sense of touch, pain, temperature (sensory strip)
Interprets signals from vision, hearing, motor, sensory and memory
Spatial and visual perception
Interprets vision (color, light, movement)
Understanding language (Wernicke’s area)
Sequencing and organization
In general, the left hemisphere of the brain is responsible for language and speech and is called the “dominant” hemisphere. The right hemisphere plays a large part in interpreting visual information and spatial processing. In about one-third of people who are left-handed, speech function may be located on the right side of the brain. Left-handed people may need special testing to determine if their speech center is on the left or right side prior to any surgery in that area.
Aphasia is a disturbance of language affecting speech production, comprehension, reading or writing, due to brain injury – most commonly from stroke or trauma. The type of aphasia depends on the brain area damaged.
Broca’s area: lies in the left frontal lobe (Fig 3). If this area is damaged, one may have difficulty moving the tongue or facial muscles to produce the sounds of speech. The person can still read and understand spoken language but has difficulty in speaking and writing (i.e. forming letters and words, doesn’t write within lines) – called Broca’s aphasia.
Wernicke’s area: lies in the left temporal lobe (Fig 3). Damage to this area causes Wernicke’s aphasia. The individual may speak in long sentences that have no meaning, add unnecessary words, and even create new words. They can make speech sounds, however they have difficulty understanding speech and are therefore unaware of their mistakes.
The surface of the cerebrum is called the cortex. It has a folded appearance with hills and valleys. The cortex contains 16 billion neurons (the cerebellum has 70 billion = 86 billion total) that are arranged in specific layers. The nerve cell bodies color the cortex grey-brown giving it its
A detailed illustration of a fold is called a gyrus and the groove between is a sulcus
Figure 4. The cortex contains neurons (grey matter), which are interconnected to other brain areas by axons (white matter). The cortex has a folded appearance. A fold is called a gyrus and the valley between is a sulcus.
The folding of the cortex increases the brain’s surface area allowing more neurons to fit inside the skull and enabling higher functions. Each fold is called a gyrus, and each groove between folds is called a sulcus. There are names for the folds and grooves that help define specific brain regions.
Pathways called white matter tracts connect areas of the cortex to each other. Messages can travel from one gyrus to another, from one lobe to another, from one side of the brain to the other, and to structures deep in the brain (Fig. 5).
Color illustration, coronal cross-section showing the basal ganglia.
Figure 5. Coronal cross-section showing the basal ganglia.
Hypothalamus: is located in the floor of the third ventricle and is the master control of the autonomic system. It plays a role in controlling behaviors such as hunger, thirst, sleep, and sexual response. It also regulates body temperature, blood pressure, emotions, and secretion of hormones.
Pituitary gland: lies in a small pocket of bone at the skull base called the sella turcica. The pituitary gland is connected to the hypothalamus of the brain by the pituitary stalk. Known as the “master gland,” it controls other endocrine glands in the body. It secretes hormones that control sexual development, promote bone and muscle growth, and respond to stress.
Pineal gland: is located behind the third ventricle. It helps regulate the body’s internal clock and circadian rhythms by secreting melatonin. It has some role in sexual development.
Thalamus: serves as a relay station for almost all information that comes and goes to the cortex. It plays a role in pain sensation, attention, alertness and memory.
Basal ganglia: includes the caudate, putamen and globus pallidus. These nuclei work with the cerebellum to coordinate fine motions, such as fingertip movements.
Limbic system: is the center of our emotions, learning, and memory. Included in this system are the cingulate gyri, hypothalamus, amygdala (emotional reactions) and hippocampus (memory).
Memory is a complex process that includes three phases: encoding (deciding what information is important), storing, and recalling. Different areas of the brain are involved in different types of memory (Fig. 6). Your brain has to pay attention and rehearse in order for an event to move from short-term to long-term memory – called encoding.
Color illustration, memory system.
Figure 6. Structures of the limbic system involved in memory formation. The prefrontal cortex holds recent events briefly in short-term memory. The hippocampus is responsible for encoding long-term memory.
Short-term memory, also called working memory, occurs in the prefrontal cortex. It stores information for about one minute and its capacity is limited to about 7 items. For example, it enables you to dial a phone number someone just told you. It also intervenes during reading, to memorize the sentence you have just read, so that the next one makes sense.
Long-term memory is processed in the hippocampus of the temporal lobe and is activated when you want to memorize something for a longer time. This memory has unlimited content and duration capacity. It contains personal memories as well as facts and figures.
Skill memory is processed in the cerebellum, which relays information to the basal ganglia. It stores automatic learned memories like tying a shoe, playing an instrument, or riding a bike.
Ventricles and cerebrospinal fluid
The brain has hollow fluid-filled cavities called ventricles (Fig. 7). Inside the ventricles is a ribbon-like structure called the choroid plexus that makes clear colorless cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). CSF flows within and around the brain and spinal cord to help cushion it from injury. This circulating fluid is constantly being absorbed and replenished.
illustration, side view of brain showing the ventricles deep within the brain and the flow of CSF
Figure 7. CSF is produced inside the ventricles deep within the brain. CSF fluid circulates inside the brain and spinal cord and then outside to the subarachnoid space. Common sites of obstruction: 1) foramen of Monro, 2) aqueduct of Sylvius, and 3) obex.
There are two ventricles deep within the cerebral hemispheres called the lateral ventricles. They both connect with the third ventricle through a separate opening called the foramen of Monro. The third ventricle connects with the fourth ventricle through a long narrow tube called the aqueduct of Sylvius. From the fourth ventricle, CSF flows into the subarachnoid space where it bathes and cushions the brain. CSF is recycled (or absorbed) by special structures in the superior sagittal sinus called arachnoid villi.
A balance is maintained between the amount of CSF that is absorbed and the amount that is produced. A disruption or blockage in the system can cause a build up of CSF, which can cause enlargement of the ventricles (hydrocephalus) or cause a collection of fluid in the spinal cord (syringomyelia).
The purpose of the bony skull is to protect the brain from injury. The skull is formed from 8 bones that fuse together along suture lines. These bones include the frontal, parietal (2), temporal (2), sphenoid, occipital and ethmoid (Fig. 8). The face is formed from 14 paired bones including the maxilla, zygoma, nasal, palatine, lacrimal, inferior nasal conchae, mandible, and vomer.
Side view illustration of a human skull
Figure 8. The brain is protected inside the skull. The skull is formed from eight bones.
Inside the skull are three distinct areas: anterior fossa, middle fossa, and posterior fossa (Fig. 9). Doctors sometimes refer to a tumor’s location by these terms, e.g., middle fossa meningioma.
Illustration, of skull base revealing the anterior, middle and posterior fossae
Figure 9. A view of the cranial nerves at the base of the skull with the brain removed. Cranial nerves originate from the brainstem, exit the skull through holes called foramina, and travel to the parts of the body they innervate. The brainstem exits the skull through the foramen magnum. The base of the skull is divided into 3 regions: anterior, middle and posterior fossae.
Similar to cables coming out the back of a computer, all the arteries, veins and nerves exit the base of the skull through holes, called foramina. The big hole in the middle (foramen magnum) is where the spinal cord exits.
The brain communicates with the body through the spinal cord and twelve pairs of cranial nerves (Fig. 9). Ten of the twelve pairs of cranial nerves that control hearing, eye movement, facial sensations, taste, swallowing and movement of the face, neck, shoulder and tongue muscles originate in the brainstem. The cranial nerves for smell and vision originate in the cerebrum.
The brain and spinal cord are covered and protected by three layers of tissue called meninges. From the outermost layer inward they are: the dura mater, arachnoid mater, and pia mater.
Dura mater: is a strong, thick membrane that closely lines the inside of the skull; its two layers, the periosteal and meningeal dura, are fused and separate only to form venous sinuses. The dura creates little folds or compartments. There are two special dural folds, the falx and the tentorium. The falx separates the right and left hemispheres of the brain and the tentorium separates the cerebrum from the cerebellum.
Arachnoid mater: is a thin, web-like membrane that covers the entire brain. The arachnoid is made of elastic tissue. The space between the dura and arachnoid membranes is called the subdural space.
Pia mater: hugs the surface of the brain following its folds and grooves. The pia mater has many blood vessels that reach deep into the brain. The space between the arachnoid and pia is called the subarachnoid space. It is here where the cerebrospinal fluid bathes and cushions the brain.
Blood is carried to the brain by two paired arteries, the internal carotid arteries and the vertebral arteries (Fig. 10). The internal carotid arteries supply most of the cerebrum.
Detailsed illustration of the arterior circulaton of the brain
Figure 10. The common carotid artery courses up the neck and divides into the internal and external carotid arteries. The brain’s anterior circulation is fed by the internal carotid arteries (ICA) and the posterior circulation is fed by the vertebral arteries (VA). The two systems connect at the Circle of Willis (green circle)
The vertebral arteries supply the cerebellum, brainstem, and the underside of the cerebrum. After passing through the skull, the right and left vertebral arteries join together to form the basilar artery. The basilar artery and the internal carotid arteries “communicate” with each other at the base of the brain called the Circle of Willis (Fig. 11). The communication between the internal carotid and vertebral-basilar systems is an important safety feature of the brain. If one of the major vessels becomes blocked, it is possible for collateral blood flow to come across the Circle of Willis and prevent brain damage.
Illustration showing the Circle of Willis
Figure 11. Top view of the Circle of Willis. The internal carotid and vertebral-basilar systems are joined by the anterior communicating (Acom) and posterior communicating (Pcom) arteries.
The venous circulation of the brain is very different from that of the rest of the body. Usually arteries and veins run together as they supply and drain specific areas of the body. So one would think there would be a pair of vertebral veins and internal carotid veins. However, this is not the case in the brain. The major vein collectors are integrated into the dura to form venous sinuses — not to be confused with the air sinuses in the face and nasal region. The venous sinuses collect the blood from the brain and pass it to the internal jugular veins. The superior and inferior sagittal sinuses drain the cerebrum, the cavernous sinuses drains the anterior skull base. All sinuses eventually drain to the sigmoid sinuses, which exit the skull and form the jugular veins. These two jugular veins are essentially the only drainage of the brain.
Cells of the brain
The brain is made up of two types of cells: nerve cells (neurons) and glia cells.
There are many sizes and shapes of neutrons, but all consist of a cell body, dendrites and an axon. The neutron conveys information through electrical and chemical signals. Try to picture electrical wiring in your home. An electrical circuit is made up of numerous wires connected in such a way that when a light switch is turned on, a light bulb will beam. A neutron that is excited will transmit its energy to neutrons within its vicinity.
Neutrons transmit their energy, or “talk”, to each other across a tiny gap called a synapse (Fig. 12). A neutron has many arms called dendrites, which act like antennae picking up messages from other nerve cells. These messages are passed to the cell body, which determines if the message should be passed along. Important messages are passed to the end of the axon where sacs containing neurotransmitters open into the synapse. The neurotransmitter molecules cross the synapse and fit into special receptors on the receiving nerve cell, which stimulates that cell to pass on the message.
Illustration of neutrons, dendrites and axon
Figure 12. Nerve cells consist of a cell body, dendrites and axon. Neutrons communicate with each other by exchanging neurotransmitters across a tiny gap called a synapse.
Glia (Greek word meaning glue) are the cells of the brain that provide neutrons with nourishment, protection, and structural support. There are about 10 to 50 times more glia than nerve cells and are the most common type of cells involved in brain tumours.
Astroglia or astrocytes are the caretakers — they regulate the blood brain barrier, allowing nutrients and molecules to interact with neurons. They control homeostasis, neuronal defense and repair, scar formation, and also affect electrical impulses.
Oligodendroglia cells create a fatty substance called myelin that insulates axons – allowing electrical messages to travel faster.
Ependymal cells line the ventricles and secrete cerebrospinal fluid (CSF).
Microglia are the brain’s immune cells, protecting it from invaders and cleaning up debris. They also prune synapses.
Sources & links
If you have more questions, please contact Mayfield Brain & Spine at 800-325-7787 or 513-221-1100.
updated > 4.2018
reviewed by > Tonya Hines, CMI, Mayfield Clinic, Cincinnati, Ohio
Mayfield Certified Health Info SealMayfield Certified Health Info materials are written and developed by the Mayfield Clinic. We comply with the HON-code standard for trustworthy health information. This information is not intended to replace the medical advice of your health care provider.
Readers when you look at the thousands of cables that connects the computers before they can work and produce something are the works of human beings, yet they were able to do these by the power of the Almighty God, which He calls His wisdom, knowledge and understanding or His Spirit that work in human beings brains. But the human beings brains are worked by God’s power which the computers inventors did not acknowledge and have never given God the copyright of His incomparable works. They have rejected God in all they do and knowingly undermined God. This is not right, because without God they couldn’t have been able to invent computers.
Readers you can see the power of God at work in the wisdom that God gave to the scientists who were able to go very deep into the images inside of human brains and make us to see the hand work of God the creator of the brains that we human beings carry about doing all our daily activities. These brains do trillions of activities every second 24/7 daily. No human being can make the brains but God. And yet the people whom God gave this wisdom to bring out the images of the brains do not acknowledge God in all that they do and claimed to the architect of human brains. They sort of take God from their works. Some people even deny the existence of God. Yet every human being is the hand work of God. Like I always say in some other articles that I wrote, if someone thinks to have made something in this world, like a book or drawings, he will have a copyright so that anyone that want to use those things will have to get the permission of the makers. The same thing goes to God who created all things in this world and He is the copyright of all things in the world but people don’t give Him the acknowledgement of His works. This shouldn’t be, all the things that people, the creator of God do are by the wisdom of God. Whatever they call these their works, Big Bang, evolutionists, scientists, philosophers, Doctors, Nurses, farmers, lawyers, Architectures, Draughtsman, whatever the works, they are all done by the wisdom of God. It now time for the whole world to acknowledge God in all their daily doings. Only Christians acknowledge God, why is this, because other people have taken God from the equation and think to say that whatever they do is without God.
I tell you readers also the inventor of television used the wisdom of God even if they don’t acknowledge God.
Images of different types of telephones from their inventions up to the present time. All these inventions are done by human beings with the wisdom, knowledge, understanding or the Spirit of God. Below is a passage from the bible of how God imparted His wisdom into mankind.
20 And he said, Thou canst not see my face: for there shall no man see me, and live.
21 And the LORD said, Behold, there is a place by me, and thou shalt stand upon a rock:
22 And it shall come to pass, while my glory passeth by, that I will put thee in a cleft of the rock, and will cover thee with my hand while I pass by:
23 And I will take away mine hand, and thou shalt see my back parts: but my face shall not be seen.
If Moses could see the back of God through the cleft of a rock, I don’t see any television that is higher than that. That is why I say that whatever people do in this world came from God without any controversy. Even the atheists should acknowledge God because they carry God in their everyday lives.
With the reference from the bible about Moses seeing the back of God through a rock can only be described as the first recorded “seeing through” something to see another thing that started from the bible by the power of God.
Electricity is another name that human beings gave to the power, or wisdom, knowledge and understanding of God. That people use the wisdom of God to find out things and make us to appreciate God more. All human beings should give Him the honour that is due to Him instead of undermining God and claiming His copyright without acknowledging Him. All human beings and other creatures of God carry God in themselves every second of their lives. Whether you acknowledge God or not.
If there is anyone there in the world claiming to be an atheist, I challenge him or her to do of these four things or the four, of he will still be alive to see it.
1. To go to the nearest hospital in whatever country they live. Tell the doctors or nurses to drain all the blood in his or her bodies.
Then replace it with their atheist blood.
2. Tell the doctors or nurses to remove his brain and replace it with their atheist brain
3. To cut off their heads and replace them with their atheist heads. Then I will believe that they indeed atheists
4. To close his nose, mouth, ears and all the holes on his or her bodies for one hour
Without the above, no atheists, it is just in their imaginations or their heads knowledge or hypocrisy. These are some of the things that will make you to believe God.
12 I have made the earth, and created man upon it: I, even my hands, have stretched out the heavens, and all their host have I commanded.
18 For thus saith the LORD that created the heavens; God himself that formed the earth and made it; he hath established it, he created it not in vain, he formed it to be inhabited: I am the LORD; and there is none else.
No one can compare God with any other thing or human beings in this world
5 To whom will ye liken me, and make me equal, and compare me, that we may be like?
God’s affirmation of His works
9 Remember the former things of old: for I am God, and there is none else; I am God, and there is none like me,
10 Declaring the end from the beginning, and from ancient times the things that are not yet done, saying, My counsel shall stand, and I will do all my pleasure:
11 Calling a ravenous bird from the east, the man that executeth my counsel from a far country: yea, I have spoken it, I will also bring it to pass; I have purposed it, I will also do it.
God’s warnings to the whole world
12 Hearken unto me, ye stouthearted, that are far from righteousness
1 Then the LORD answered Job out of the whirlwind, and said,
2 Who is this that darkeneth counsel by words without knowledge?
3 Gird up now thy loins like a man; for I will demand of thee, and answer thou me.
4 Where wast thou when I laid the foundations of the earth? declare, if thou hast understanding.
5 Who hath laid the measures thereof, if thou knowest? or who hath stretched the line upon it?
6 Whereupon are the foundations thereof fastened? or who laid the corner-stone thereof;
7 When the morning stars sang together, and all the sons of God shouted for joy?
8 Or who shut up the sea with doors, when it brake forth, as if it had issued out of the womb?
9 When I made the cloud the garment thereof, and thick darkness a swaddlingband for it,
10 And brake up for it my decreed place, and set bars and doors,
11 And said, Hitherto shalt thou come, but no further: and here shall thy proud waves be stayed?
12 Hast thou commanded the morning since thy days; and caused the dayspring to know his place;
13 That it might take hold of the ends of the earth, that the wicked might be shaken out of it?
14 It is turned as clay to the seal; and they stand as a garment.
15 And from the wicked their light is withholden, and the high arm shall be broken.
16 Hast thou entered into the springs of the sea? or hast thou walked in the search of the depth?
17 Have the gates of death been opened unto thee? or hast thou seen the doors of the shadow of death?
18 Hast thou perceived the breadth of the earth? declare if thou knowest it all.
19 Where is the way where light dwelleth? and as for darkness, where is the place thereof,
20 That thou shouldest take it to the bound thereof, and that thou shouldest know the paths to the house thereof?
21 Knowest thou it, because thou wast then born? or because the number of thy days is great?
22 Hast thou entered into the treasures of the snow? or hast thou seen the treasures of the hail,
23 Which I have reserved against the time of trouble, against the day of battle and war?
24 By what way is the light parted, which scattereth the east wind upon the earth?
25 Who hath divided a watercourse for the overflowing of waters, or a way for the lightning of thunder;
26 To cause it to rain on the earth, where no man is; on the wilderness, wherein there is no man;
27 To satisfy the desolate and waste ground; and to cause the bud of the tender herb to spring forth?
28 Hath the rain a father? or who hath begotten the drops of dew?
29 Out of whose womb came the ice? and the hoary frost of heaven, who hath gendered it?
30 The waters are hid as with a stone, and the face of the deep is frozen.
31 Canst thou bind the sweet influences of Pleiades, or loose the bands of Orion?
32 Canst thou bring forth Mazzaroth in his season? or canst thou guide Arcturus with his sons?
33 Knowest thou the ordinances of heaven? canst thou set the dominion thereof in the earth?
34 Canst thou lift up thy voice to the clouds, that abundance of waters may cover thee?
35 Canst thou send lightnings, that they may go, and say unto thee, Here we are?
36 Who hath put wisdom in the inward parts? or who hath given understanding to the heart?
37 Who can number the clouds in wisdom? or who can stay the bottles of heaven,
38 When the dust groweth into hardness, and the clods cleave fast together?
39 Wilt thou hunt the prey for the lion? or fill the appetite of the young lions,
40 When they couch in their dens, and abide in the covert to lie in wait?
41 Who provideth for the raven his food? when his young ones cry unto God, they wander for lack of meat.
1 Knowest thou the time when the wild goats of the rock bring forth? or canst thou mark when the hinds do calve?
2 Canst thou number the months that they fulfil? or knowest thou the time when they bring forth?
3 They bow themselves, they bring forth their young ones, they cast out their sorrows.
4 Their young ones are in good liking, they grow up with corn; they go forth, and return to them.
5 Who hath sent out the wild ass free? or who hath loosed the bands of the wild ass?
6 Whose house I have made the wilderness, and the barren land his dwellings.
7 He scorneth the multitude of the city, neither regardeth he the crying of the driver.
8 The range of the mountains is his pasture, and he searcheth after every green thing.
9 Will the unicorn be willing to serve thee, or abide by thy crib?
10 Canst thou bind the unicorn with his band in the furrow? or will he harrow the valleys after thee?
11 Wilt thou trust him, because his strength is great? or wilt thou leave thy labour to him?
12 Wilt thou believe him, that he will bring home thy seed, and gather it into thy barn?
13 Gavest thou the goodly wings unto the peacocks? or wings and feathers unto the ostrich?
14 Which leaveth her eggs in the earth, and warmeth them in dust,
15 And forgetteth that the foot may crush them, or that the wild beast may break them.
16 She is hardened against her young ones, as though they were not hers: her labour is in vain without fear;
17 Because God hath deprived her of wisdom, neither hath he imparted to her understanding.
18 What time she lifteth up herself on high, she scorneth the horse and his rider.9
19 Hast thou given the horse strength? hast thou clothed his neck with thunder?
20 Canst thou make him afraid as a grasshopper? the glory of his nostrils is terrible.
21 He paweth in the valley, and rejoiceth in his strength: he goeth on to meet the armed men.
22 He mocketh at fear, and is not affrighted; neither turneth he back from the sword.
23 The quiver rattleth against him, the glittering spear and the shield.
24 He swalloweth the ground with fierceness and rage: neither believeth he that it is the sound of the trumpet.
25 He saith among the trumpets, Ha, ha; and he smelleth the battle afar off, the thunder of the captains, and the shouting.
26 Doth the hawk fly by thy wisdom, and stretch her wings toward the south?
27 Doth the eagle mount up at thy command, and make her nest on high?
28 She dwelleth and abideth on the rock, upon the crag of the rock, and the strong place.
29 From thence she seeketh the prey, and her eyes behold afar off.
30 Her young ones also suck up blood: and where the slain are, there is she
1 Canst thou draw out leviathan with a hook? or his tongue with a cord which thou lettest down?
2 Canst thou put an hook into his nose? or bore his jaw through with a thorn?
3 Will he make many supplications unto thee? will he speak soft words unto thee?
4 Will he make a covenant with thee? wilt thou take him for a servant for ever?
5 Wilt thou play with him as with a bird? or wilt thou bind him for thy maidens?
6 Shall the companions make a banquet of him? shall they part him among the merchants?
7 Canst thou fill his skin with barbed irons? or his head with fish spears?
8 Lay thine hand upon him, remember the battle, do no more.
9 Behold, the hope of him is in vain: shall not one be cast down even at the sight of him?
10 None is so fierce that dare stir him up: who then is able to stand before me?
11 Who hath prevented me, that I should repay him? whatsoever is under the whole heaven is mine.
12 I will not conceal his parts, nor his power, nor his comely proportion.
13 Who can discover the face of his garment? or who can come to him with his double bridle?
14 Who can open the doors of his face? his teeth are terrible round about.
15 His scales are his pride, shut up together as with a close seal.
16 One is so near to another, that no air can come between them.
17 They are joined one to another, they stick together, that they cannot be sundered.
18 By his neesings a light doth shine, and his eyes are like the eyelids of the morning.
19 Out of his mouth go burning lamps, and sparks of fire leap out.
20 Out of his nostrils goeth smoke, as out of a seething pot or caldron.
21 His breath kindleth coals, and a flame goeth out of his mouth.
22 In his neck remaineth strength, and sorrow is turned into joy before him.
23 The flakes of his flesh are joined together: they are firm in themselves; they cannot be moved.
24 His heart is as firm as a stone; yea, as hard as a piece of the nether millstone.
25 When he raiseth up himself, the mighty are afraid: by reason of breakings they purify themselves.
26 The sword of him that layeth at him cannot hold: the spear, the dart, nor the habergeon.
27 He esteemeth iron as straw, and brass as rotten wood.
28 The arrow cannot make him flee: slingstones are turned with him into stubble.
29 Darts are counted as stubble: he laugheth at the shaking of a spear.
30 Sharp stones are under him: he spreadeth sharp-pointed things upon the mire.
31 He maketh the deep to boil like a pot: he maketh the sea like a pot of ointment.
32 He maketh a path to shine after him; one would think the deep to be hoary.
33 Upon earth there is not his like, who is made without fear.
34 He beholdeth all high things: he is a king over all the children of pride.
Images of the so-called evolution. These are not human beings. The evolutionists can give another names to the creations of God but I tell you, instead of them acknowledging God, they denied Him and think to change what God created. They took God from the equation. Since their theory, nothing has evolved. No monkey has turned to human beings. No bird has turned to snails. No fish has turned to butterfly. Instead of them to use the wisdom that God gave to do things that will glorify God, they continue to deny their maker- GOD
God made it very very clear by His words through Paul in the bible, 1st Corinthians 15.
All flesh is not the same flesh, but there is one kind of flesh of men, another flesh of beasts, another of fishes, and another of birds.
As all flesh are not the same, no evolution can take place. From the beginnings of time nobody has ever heard or seen an ant to become an elephant, or a grasshopper to become a fish, Neither has mankind seen a goat to become an antelope. So the theory of evolution is just man-made which doesn’t exist.
At this point, in this article, I have to remind the readers about the other works done by human beings with the wisdom, knowledge and understanding or the Spirit of God. For an example, scientists or science are all done by the wisdom, knowledge and understanding or the Spirit of God before they can do a research on any aspect of human lives or the lives of animals, birds, insects, plants and other creatures of God. According to the dictionary meaning of science below
the intellectual and practical activity encompassing the systematic study of the structure and behaviour of the physical and natural world through observation and experiment.“the world of science and technology”
synonyms: branch of knowledge, body of knowledge/information/facts, area of study, discipline, field“the science of criminology”
a particular area of science.plural noun: sciences“veterinary science”
a systematically organized body of knowledge on a particular subject.“the science of criminology”
image of micros cop
At this point in this article, I like to bring the readers to know that whatever human beings do in this world is with the wisdom, knowledge, understanding and the Spirit of God. Whatever be your professional status, you are filled with the wisdom, knowledge, understanding and the Spirit of God always. Whether you are scientists, doctors, nurses, Professors, Carpenters, road swipers, caterers, or whatever your profession, you have used the wisdom, knowledge and understanding or the Spirit of God in all the things that you have achieved in this world. Nobody in this world that hasn’t got these attributes of God in themselves. God is always at work in all His creatures. Why is it then that only the very handful of human beings honour God with His wisdom, knowledge and understanding or His Spirit. The whole world owe God our lives, thanks, Praise, for His unending gifts He bestowed upon all human beings. Yet majority of us do not acknowledge God as it should be. Whether you an atheists, philosophers, scientists, Big Bang theory people or evolutionists, you Carry God in you 24/7
By now, you have read some of the works of God in all the creatures of the world. You as a human being is the work of God. Evolution or Big Bang can’t make you, God made Big Bang and all the things in the world and in the heavens of heavens. God made human beings very special, in His own image, marvellous and unique. God created the heavens of heavens and the earth and everything in it. He entrusted the fullness of the earth into our hands. He gave us shelter which God called garden of Eden. He provided foods for us in this beautiful garden. All different types of fruits trees for food. In this garden, there were two other trees called the tree of good and evil and the tree of life. God commanded us to eat from all the fruits trees of the garden except the tree of good and evil. Why because God created us in our innocent state. We were made pure, sinless and in the image and the likeness of God as you have read in this article above. God did not make us without wills. He gave us will to do things. So by the Holy Spirit of God I invite all atheists, scientists, philosophers, Big Bang people, Evolutionists and many more out there to rethink and know that they carry God in themselves and use the wisdom, knowledge and understanding of God in whatever they do. To tell them that it doesn’t Matter how they have undermined God. God is a God of Love and justice who loves all His creatures. All human beings have sinned through our for-Father-Adam and our for-mother Eve. Because of God’s love for human beings, He had made a way of Salvation for every one of us to have close relationship with Him, which we lost in the garden of Eden. By accepting Jesus Christ as Lord and Saviour, we human beings have gained back what was lost in the garden of Eden.
Prayer of Salvation is open to everyone all over the world. It doesn’t cost you anything but your trust in God.
I ………………………. declare, decree and confirm that I was born a sinner. I have committed many sins in my life. I am very sorry for all my sins. I now beg Jesus Christ to remit all my sins with His precious blood that He shed on Calvary. I accept Jesus Christ as my Lord and Saviour with all my heart, mind, thoughts, strength, and with everything that is within me.I now ask Jesus Christ to fill me with His Holy Spirit, teach me Lord, direct all my paths, take me completely away from the power of Satan, from all evils and worldliness, by the blood of Jesus Christ I am born again into the the life of Jesus Christ. Thank you Lord. In Jesus Christ name I have prayed.
God bless you as you have accepted this amazing grace of God.