Rome the false prophet. 1

The one to be used always

Rome the false prophet as revealed to me by God at around 5am today 16.11.201

 24.05.1991

Rome


Revelation that God gave me concerning Rome on the 24.05.1991

In this vision, the Spirit of God took me to a place that was brightly lit with light, it was a very beautiful place. I was placed on a rock and as I was wondering where I was, to my  right hand  I saw the figure of the Lord that was clothed in white apparel down to the ground. It was so white and whiter than any white that I have ever seen and was dazzling like silver. This Lord was so close to me, but to my amazement, the hair was white like snow and the place for the face was covered with fires and the two eyes were rolling like revolving engine at a very great speed that is faster than anything that I have ever seen in my life and as I was there, trembling and really afraid. His voice said, My daughter, My daughter, I am going to start my work in the smallest Town in Italy, as the voice was talking to me, my head was moved to my right hand and to my surprise, a map of the world was in front of me showing the spot for Rome inside the map of Italy. Rome was written in capital letters and in the colour red. The Spirit of God spoke through me saying: This  map of Italy that looks like Cow’s feet, I tell you I didn’t know what I was saying or what comes out of my mouth but those were the exact words that came out from my mouth out of fright. My knees were knocking  against each other. And the voice of God continued saying: My daughter, do not be afraid of what I the Lord was about to tell you, the sins of Rome has reached its climax and I will judge her and punish her for what she had done to my saints. My daughter write these for the future because going to happen very soon and keep it to tell my people what I will do to Rome when her time of visitation comes. I am  the Lord, I am the Lord of all the earth.

I was more terrified when I woke up than in the vision. From that time I had prayed many many times, months and years asking God for the meaning of this vision. I didn’t get any answer for many years after this vision but it has always at the back of my mind and I know that at God’s appointed tome I will know it from the Almighty God.

Revelation of God concerning Rome the false prophet on:

On the 16.11.2019

I was in this vision, and the voice of the Lord said to me, My daughter, I am sending you to my saints, to tell them about ”Rome the false prophet” I was terrified to hear these words from God. And I was really and truly shaking and bewildered and felt that I could not move any part of my body. As I was in this state, the voice of the Lord continued saying: My daughter, this little town have destroyed My people all over the world and the whole world with her wickedness, sauceries , idolatries, witchcrafts, with her pride, she turned her back to me and not her front, she has killed, Maimed, destroyed, slaughtered, burnt my people alive, she has shed the blood of my saints, do not stop the slaughtering of my saints. She has destroyed my houses of prayers, She has made herself the destroyer of all good things. All evils, wickedness, and all abominable things come from her. Her pomposity led her to controlled the whole world with so much wickedness, ruthlessly with her iron hands has shed innocent blood. Her sins have come up to Me the Almighty Lord to judge her and avenge her for the blood of My saints and judge her of her ruthless rules over My people and the whole world. My daughter, she is most wicked. I the Lord will judge her according to her evil doings. Then the voice of God continued saying: My daughter, look to your right, I did as God told me, to my amazement, I saw the map of Italy and also the map of Rome on which was written in red colour and this map of Rome was covered with fire, huge fire, then the Lord told that is the end of Rome and her wickedness. The voice of the Lord continued saying My daughter, I will judge this evil town and put an end to her wickedness. I am the Lord the avenger.

On the 16.11.2019

After that the Lord told me that Rome the smallest Town in Italy is the false prophet. I pondered this in my heart for many months with prayers and castings, I started to study and to collect facts  about Rome in relation to the beast from the earth in the book of revelation 13. and from the media, papers, from writers and historians, from libraries and I read many books related to Rome. So readers, I tell you that the Almighty Lord has given this messages to me, had commanded, made to, compelled, instructed, bound and powered by the Holy Spirit of the Lord Almighty to tell the saints of Christ Jesus that Rome is surely the false prophet according to the Almighty Lord.


First let me remind you readers the words of God in the book of revelation 23.11-17

11 And I beheld another beast coming up out of the earth; and he had two horns like a lamb, and he spake as a dragon.

12 And he exerciseth all the power of the first beast before him, and causeth the earth and them which dwell therein to worship the first beast, whose deadly wound was healed.

13 And he doeth great wonders, so that he maketh fire come down from heaven on the earth in the sight of men,

14 And deceiveth them that dwell on the earth by the means of those miracles which he had power to do in the sight of the beast; saying to them that dwell on the earth, that they should make an image to the beast, which had the wound by a sword, and did .

15 And he had power to give life unto the image of the beast, that the image of the beast should both speak, and cause that as many as would not worship the image of the beast should be killed.

16 And he causeth all, both small and great, rich and poor, free and bond, to receive a mark in their right hand, or in their foreheads:

17 And that no man might buy or sell, save he that had the mark, or the name of the beast, or the number of his name.

According to the above, let us analyse the characteristics of this beast known as Rome the false prophet.

  1. Has two horns like a lamb
  2. He excercise all the power of the first beast
  3. He causeth the worship of the first beast
  4. He doeth great wonders
  5. He maketh fire come down from heaven
  6. He deceiveth people of the earth
  7. He gives life to the image of the first beast
  8. He causeth all people to receive the mark of the first beast
  9. He appeared gentle like a lamb yet he was a ram with two horns
  10. Persecuted the Saints of God
  11. Has iron teeth that she used to break all the counties, nations, that she conquered into pieces and turned them to slaves. She will levy very heavy taxes upon them. Some of these people she uses at spots, some she tries into Hungary animals to be turn to pieces and be eaten alive. Some she told to fight and kill one another as games for the evil Roman Emperors to watch.
  12. He came from the earth, small populated country.
  13. The beast that changed the calendar of the Almighty Lord. What nation in the world did this abomination other than Rome. The whole world is still under the Roman rules in calendar, days of the week, and months, monetary system, trades and many more things.
  14. The only beast that it’s system did not die or stopped. All other ruling powers like Babylon, medo-Persian and Greece, their powers have been reduced to nothing and have almost unknown to the world.
    Do you ever wonder why the Lord Jesus Christ started destroying the image that Nebuchadnezzar king of Babylon saw from the toes? The image had head that denotes Babylon, the shoulders denotes Medo-Persian and the loins denotes Greece. Yet the Lord started the destruction of the image from the toes with the stone.

This beast has two horns. Bible tells us that horns denotes power or kingdom. This beast looked like a lamb, this shows us that this deceitful beast is not a lamb but pretending to be one. because lamb do not have horns. According to bible interpretation, in Genesis 22.13 says And Abraham, lifted up his eyes, and looked, and behold behind him a ram caught in a thicket by his horns: and Abraham went and took the ram and offered him up for a burnt offering in the stead of his son. This is another wicked strategy of Rome to look like something and not the real thing Therefore, these two horns of the beast are the two divided Empires of Rome to Eastern and Western Empires situated at Rome and Constantinople This denotes the two iron legs of the beast. Each having other five Empires at her rulings or command. The names were, Anglo-Saxon now England, Alemani now Germany; Franks now France; Burgundians now Swizerland; Suevi now Portugal; Visigoths now Spain; Lombards now Italy; Heruli and Vadals and Ostrogoths werecompletely desroyed by the Papacy with very little trace of them.

Please  I advice all readers of this God’s message to please to ask for more of the Holy Spirit to understand and to know that this is from God and not my own making. Even though, so many scholars, writers, historians and many more people have made different people, politicians, individuals, heads of States  or some Continents and Countries as the false prophets.  All theses are just human knowledge, understanding and wisdom. But I tell you that this Rome as the false prophet  is what the Almighty Lord has been feeding me with, in so many visions and revelations that Rome is the false prophet. It can only be understood by the Holy Spirit of Christ. This is not a wisdom, knowledge or the understanding of a human being. The Lord has been working in me for a very long time and has shown me many infallible truths about this Rome as the false prophet. 
I was compelled, given, made to, bound, commanded, authorised and powered by the Holy Spirit of the Almighty Lord to tell His saints, churches about this evil Rome as the false prophet who had been doing evils to God’s people, His laws, His words and had intentionally, sturbonlly, and with the highest hatred for the things or people of the Almighty Lord Jesus Christ. 
All the Cities and Towns where the Apostles of Christ were killed and tortured were all orchestrated by Rome at the time of the Roman Empires. Almost the whole world is still under the Roman rules in the calendar, days of the week that were named after the Roman gods. The months were named to honour their Emperors, for a very long time Latin was the main language of many countries of the world. Taxation came from Rome. Many more things are still controlled by Rome. Rome divided the Church of Christ into Roman Catholic Church in violation to Christ Jesus church that He bought with His 


According to God’s audible voice of God to me saying that He will gather His saints for His second coming that you Lord will revive and  prepare all your believers  and gather them from the four corners of the world, from all nations, tongues, lan­guages, colours, shapes and sizes, from all denominations, ministries and churches, fellowship, prayer meetings mega churches, groups, house churches, and individually, collectively, from all the nations of the world to worship you according to your planned,  patterned, ordained, decreed, man­dated,  and purposed in observing of all your feasts days, your 7th day Sabbath that is in  your Commandment and your new year which you had used as a line of demarcation and a sure division and a set apart, to make Your believers who are known as the multitudes of nations like God intended for eternity, to be completely separated from this world of Satan and for Christ alone as His body,  to get them com­pletely out of the hand of the Antichrist.   To let the churches of Jesus Christ know and understand that the evil Sunday worship  which has now been revealed to me through many visions and revelations from God Almighty. Which the wicked and evil Papacy had defiantly, beastly, and rebelliously and cun­ningly, stubbornly imposed on your churches for all these years? To make your churches to know that after this revelation of the evil Anti­christ  the Papacy and Rome the false prophet. To make your churches know that God Almighty had  planned, patterned and purposed to destroy Satan, the Papacy the Antichrist and Rome the false prophet before the foundation of the world.  To tell your churches that God has now put a stop,  condemned the  worshipping on Sunday and  has officially, and finally and forevermore becomes 666 that will be Spiritually engraved on the right hands or the foreheads of those who continue to worship on Sunday for eternity. Please God let your churches know that from the time of this God’s revelation of the Papacy’s, the law or decree of Sunday worship is now, permanently and for eternity annulled and totally and completely de­stroyed by Jesus Christ of Nazareth as in Daniel chapter 2: 34.   How the hand of Jesus Christ with the stone started the destruction of the image that Nebuchadnezer king of Babylon saw from the toes. To let  all His believers know that the Almighty Lord Jesus Christ of Nazareth will start this  His total destruction from Rome the false prophet which was represented by the two legs of iron, which rep­resent the two divisions of the Roman Empires into Western and Eastern  Empires and the ten toes mixed with miry clay that represents the ten Empires of Rome, which is now popularly known as European Union, but is still the old Roman Empire which has  now been revived to do evil to all the Lord’s words and works and to the entire world. Please Lord make your churches know that  the two iron legs and the ten toes of the image are still Rome and working  under the authority of  the evil Satan, that  every evil,  rebellion, wickedness,  abominations, or bad things  come  from Rome the iron teeth beast of Daniel chapter 7 and according to what the Lord told me in the vision, also in Christ’s audible voice that this denotes Rome as visions often repeat itself in the bible and that  these works will God do through His chosen two witnesses of revelation chapter 11:16-22 as He had  planned, patterned, decreed, declared and mandated and confirmed by the Lord Jesus Christ of Nazareth before the world began, which He had purposed to do according to His spoken words through Paul in the epistle of 2nd Thessalonians chapter 2:1-12. To show to His churches and the world, God’s own everlasting and perfect and supper power, that is  unparalleled, the strongest and unquestionably mandated and  stands forevermore, His supremacy, His authoritative power over the wicked­ness of Satan, the Papacy who is really and truly the Antichrist and Rome the false prophet as the Almighty Lord told me. These will make all Christ’s believers who is known as multitude of nations or the Israel of Christ and without any controversy to  now  take heed, ad­here, without further delay, or any doubt or arguments and start wor­shipping Jesus Christ on the 7th day Sabbath, the  observance of His feasts days and the new year as    commanded by God, what He used   as a sure division and separation between God’s saints and the people of the world that had set them  apart  from this world that Satan governs. These had been the planned, pat­terned and the purposed of the Almighty Christ, even before the foundation of the world amen. Lord let your churches  know all the wicked works of Satan even from the  Heavens of heavens, Lord open the hearts of your churches to know how Satan tricked Eve and Adam in the garden of Eden and made them loose their God given innocency forevermore. To know Satan’s deceits   in all the Churches of our Lord Jesus Christ, and how he continuously, and rebel­liously, and stubbornly, and with his uncared attitude in manipulating God’s word in the bible and knowingly had deceived all the churches of Christ and the people of the world. I Juliana JooSabba was definitely and truly commanded, compelled, authorised and made to, had been given, duty bound, powered by the Holy Spirit of the Almighty God in me, to let  His churches know the Papacy  as surely  the Antichrist and all the wrongs that he did, with all his subtlety, his blasphemous words against the  Most High God Daniel 7.25, and  his rebellious attitude towards Christ, all the evils  that Satan do through the evil papacy, the removing, and the adding, and the changes that he made to God’s words in the bible, Lord destroy all the ways that Satan had twisted, had added and had manipulated and tampered with some of the words of the epistles of the apostles in the bible, es­pecially all the things to do with the law of God, which Satan first did when he twisted some of the words of God in order to  establish  the evil trinity in the book of Genesis chapter 1 were it says “Let us make man in our image”  but God said “I will make man in my image and likeness” and also in Genesis 3 where Satan twisted the words of God to Eve be­ginning with “Had God said”…… and in Genesis 11:5 the truth of God’s word says “And God went down to see…….” But Satan twisted this word of God in  Gene­sis 11:7 saying:  “Go to, Let us …… “ and  had continuously and wickedly caused confusions and  had deceived all the churches of Christ all over the world in believing in the evil  trinity, three gods in one. God actually confirmed that there is no god besides Him, He is the one and only God in heavens of heavens and earth. Isaiah 45.5” I am the LORD, and there is none else, there is no God beside me:”
Lord destroy all the powers of Satan, the papacy and Rome permanently in Christ name amen


Rome took the doctrine of Babylon, Medo-Persia and Greece together with her own idolatrous life as you can see in the picture below 



 

HOW EACH OF THE APOSTLES DIED AT THE TIME OF THE ROMAN EMPIRES

1. Matthew
Suffered martyrdom in Ethiopia, killed by a sword wound.

2. Mark
Died in Alexandria, Egypt , after being dragged by Horses through the streets until he was dead.

3. Luke
Was hanged in Greece as a result of his tremendous preaching to the lost.

4. John
Faced martyrdom when he was boiled in huge Basin of Boiling Oil during a wave of persecution in Rome.
However, he was miraculously delivered from death.
John was then sentenced to the mines on the prison Island of Patmos.
He wrote his prophetic Book of Revelation on Patmos.
The apostle John was later freed and returned to serve as Bishop of Edessa in modern Turkey.
He died as an old man, the only apostle to die peacefully.

5. Peter
He was crucified upside down on an X-shaped cross.
According to church tradition it was because he told his tormentors that he felt unworthy to die In the same way that Jesus Christ had died.

6. James
The leader of the Church in Jerusalem , was thrown over a hundred feet down from the southeast pinnacle of the Temple when he refused to deny his faith in Christ. When they discovered that he survived the fall, his enemies beat James to death with a fuller’s club.

  • This was the same pinnacle where Satan had taken Jesus during the Temptation. 7. James
    (the Son of Zebedee)
    Was a fisherman by trade when Jesus called him to a lifetime of ministry.
    As a strong leader of the church, James was beheaded at Jerusalem.
    The Roman officer who guarded James watched amazed as James defended his faith at his trial.
    Later, the officer walked beside James to the place of execution.
    Overcome by conviction, he declared his new faith to the judge and knelt beside James to accept beheading as a Christian. 8. Bartholomew
    Also known as Nathaniel was a missionary to Asia.
    He witnessed for our Lord in present day Turkey.
    Bartholomew was martyred for his preaching in Armenia where he was flayed to death by a whip. 9. Andrew
    Was crucified on an x-shaped cross in Patras, Greece.
    After being whipped severely by seven soldiers they tied his body to the cross with cords to prolong his agony.
    His followers reported that, when he was led toward the cross, Andrew saluted it in these words:
    ” I have long desired and expected this happy hour. The cross has been consecrated by the body of Christ hanging on it.”
    He continued to preach to his tormentors for two days until he expired. 10. Thomas
    Was stabbed with a spear in India during one of his missionary trips to establish the church in the Sub-continent. 11. Jude
    Was killed with arrows when he refused to deny his faith in Christ. 12. Matthias
    The apostle chosen to replace the traitor Judas Iscariot, was stoned and then beheaded. 13. Paul
    Was tortured and then beheaded by the evil Emperor Nero at Rome in A.D. 67.
    Paul endured a lengthy imprisonment, which allowed him to write his many epistles to the churches he had formed throughout the Roman Empire.
    These letters, which taught many of the foundational Doctrines of Christianity, form a large portion of the New Testament.

Perhaps this is a reminder to us that our sufferings here are indeed minor compared to the intense persecution and cold cruelty faced by the Apostles and Disciples during their times for the sake of the Faith.

Now read about what Rome did in the bible

Gospel of Mathew

1 Now when Jesus was born in Bethlehem of Judaea in the days of Herod the king, behold, there came wise men from the east to Jerusalem,
2 Saying, Where is he that is born King of the Jews? for we have seen his star in the east, and are come to worship him.
3 When Herod the king had heard these things, he was troubled, and all Jerusalem with him.
4 And when he had gathered all the chief priests and scribes of the people together, he demanded of them where Christ should be born.
5 And they said unto him, In Bethlehem of Judaea: for thus it is written by the prophet,
6 And thou Bethlehem, in the land of Juda, art not the least among the princes of Juda: for out of thee shall come a Governor, that shall rule my people Israel.
7 Then Herod, when he had privily called the wise men, enquired of them diligently what time the star appeared.
8 And he sent them to Bethlehem, and said, Go and search diligently for the young child; and when ye have found him, bring me word again, that I may come and worship him also.
9 When they had heard the king, they departed; and, lo, the star, which they saw in the east, went before them, till it came and stood over where the young child was.
10 When they saw the star, they rejoiced with exceeding great joy.
11 And when they were come into the house, they saw the young child with Mary his mother, and fell down, and worshipped him: and when they had opened their treasures, they presented unto him gifts; gold, and frankincense, and myrrh.
12 And being warned of God in a dream that they should not return to Herod, they departed into their own country another way.
13 And when they were departed, behold, the angel of the Lord appeareth to Joseph in a dream, saying, Arise, and take the young child and his mother, and flee into Egypt, and be thou there until I bring thee word: for Herod will seek the young child to destroy him.
14 When he arose, he took the young child and his mother by night, and departed into Egypt:
15 And was there until the death of Herod: that it might be fulfilled which was spoken of the Lord by the prophet, saying, Out of Egypt have I called my son.
16 Then Herod, when he saw that he was mocked of the wise men, was exceeding wroth, and sent forth, and slew all the children that were in Bethlehem, and in all the coasts thereof, from two years old and under, according to the time which he had diligently enquired of the wise men.
17 Then was fulfilled that which was spoken by Jeremy the prophet, saying,
18 In Rama was there a voice heard, lamentation, and weeping, and great mourning, Rachel weeping for her children, and would not be comforted, because they are not.
19 But when Herod was dead, behold, an angel of the Lord appeareth in a dream to Joseph in Egypt,
20 Saying, Arise, and take the young child and his mother, and go into the land of Israel: for they are dead which sought the young child’s life.
21 And he arose, and took the young child and his mother, and came into the land of Israel.
22 But when he heard that Archelaus did reign in Judaea in the room of his father Herod, he was afraid to go thither: notwithstanding, being warned of God in a dream, he turned aside into the parts of Galilee:
23 And he came and dwelt in a city called Nazareth: that it might be fulfilled which was spoken by the prophets, He shall be called a Nazarene.

Gospel of Luke

1 And it came to pass in those days, that there went out a decree from Caesar Augustus, that all the world should be taxed.
2 (And this taxing was first made when Cyrenius was governor of Syria.)
3 And all went to be taxed, every one into his own city.
4 And Joseph also went up from Galilee, out of the city of Nazareth, into Judaea, unto the city of David, which is called Bethlehem; (because he was of the house and lineage of David:)
5 To be taxed with Mary his espoused wife, being great with child.
6 And so it was, that, while they were there, the days were accomplished that she should be delivered.
7 And she brought forth her firstborn son, and wrapped him in swaddling clothes, and laid him in a manger; because there was no room for them in the inn.
8 And there were in the same country shepherds abiding in the field, keeping watch over their flock by night.
9 And, lo, the angel of the Lord came upon them, and the glory of the Lord shone round about them: and they were sore afraid.
10 And the angel said unto them, Fear not: for, behold, I bring you good tidings of great joy, which shall be to all people.
11 For unto you is born this day in the city of David a Saviour, which is Christ the Lord.
12 And this shall be a sign unto you; Ye shall find the babe wrapped in swaddling clothes, lying in a manger.
13 And suddenly there was with the angel a multitude of the heavenly host praising God, and saying,
14 Glory to God in the highest, and on earth peace, good will toward men.
15 And it came to pass, as the angels were gone away from them into heaven, the shepherds said one to another, Let us now go even unto Bethlehem, and see this thing which is come to pass, which the Lord hath made known unto us.
16 And they came with haste, and found Mary, and Joseph, and the babe lying in a manger.
17 And when they had seen it, they made known abroad the saying which was told them concerning this child.
18 And all they that heard it wondered at those things which were told them by the shepherds.
19 But Mary kept all these things, and pondered them in her heart.
20 And the shepherds returned, glorifying and praising God for all the things that they had heard and seen, as it was told unto them.
21 And when eight days were accomplished for the circumcising of the child, his name was called JESUS, which was so named of the angel before he was conceived in the womb.
22 And when the days of her purification according to the law of Moses were accomplished, they brought him to Jerusalem, to present him to the Lord;
23 (As it is written in the law of the LORD, Every male that openeth the womb shall be called holy to the Lord;)
24 And to offer a sacrifice according to that which is said in the law of the Lord, A pair of turtledoves, or two young pigeons.
25 And, behold, there was a man in Jerusalem, whose name was Simeon; and the same man was just and devout, waiting for the consolation of Israel: and the Holy Ghost was upon him.
26 And it was revealed unto him by the Holy Ghost, that he should not see death, before he had seen the Lord’s Christ.
27 And he came by the Spirit into the temple: and when the parents brought in the child Jesus, to do for him after the custom of the law,
28 Then took he him up in his arms, and blessed God, and said,
29 Lord, now lettest thou thy servant depart in peace, according to thy word:
30 For mine eyes have seen thy salvation,
31 Which thou hast prepared before the face of all people;
32 A light to lighten the Gentiles, and the glory of thy people Israel.
33 And Joseph and his mother marvelled at those things which were spoken of him.
34 And Simeon blessed them, and said unto Mary his mother, Behold, this child is set for the fall and rising again of many in Israel; and for a sign which shall be spoken against;
35 (Yea, a sword shall pierce through thy own soul also,) that the thoughts of many hearts may be revealed.
36 And there was one Anna, a prophetess, the daughter of Phanuel, of the tribe of Aser: she was of a great age, and had lived with an husband seven years from her virginity;
37 And she was a widow of about fourscore and four years, which departed not from the temple, but served God with fastings and prayers night and day.
38 And she coming in that instant gave thanks likewise unto the Lord, and spake of him to all them that looked for redemption in Jerusalem.
39 And when they had performed all things according to the law of the Lord, they returned into Galilee, to their own city Nazareth.
40 And the child grew, and waxed strong in spirit, filled with wisdom: and the grace of God was upon him.
41 Now his parents went to Jerusalem every year at the feast of the passover.
42 And when he was twelve years old, they went up to Jerusalem after the custom of the feast.
43 And when they had fulfilled the days, as they returned, the child Jesus tarried behind in Jerusalem; and Joseph and his mother knew not of it.
44 But they, supposing him to have been in the company, went a day’s journey; and they sought him among their kinsfolk and acquaintance.
45 And when they found him not, they turned back again to Jerusalem, seeking him.
46 And it came to pass, that after three days they found him in the temple, sitting in the midst of the doctors, both hearing them, and asking them questions.
47 And all that heard him were astonished at his understanding and answers.
48 And when they saw him, they were amazed: and his mother said unto him, Son, why hast thou thus dealt with us? behold, thy father and I have sought thee sorrowing.
49 And he said unto them, How is it that ye sought me? wist ye not that I must be about my Father’s business?
50 And they understood not the saying which he spake unto them.
51 And he went down with them, and came to Nazareth, and was subject unto them: but his mother kept all these sayings in her heart.
52 And Jesus increased in wisdom and stature, and in favour with God and man.

Gospel of John

34 And said, Where have ye laid him? They said unto him, Lord, come and see.
35 Jesus wept.
36 Then said the Jews, Behold how he loved him!
37 And some of them said, Could not this man, which opened the eyes of the blind, have caused that even this man should not have died?
38 Jesus therefore again groaning in himself cometh to the grave. It was a cave, and a stone lay upon it.
39 Jesus said, Take ye away the stone. Martha, the sister of him that was dead, saith unto him, Lord, by this time he stinketh: for he hath been dead four days.
40 Jesus saith unto her, Said I not unto thee, that, if thou wouldest believe, thou shouldest see the glory of God?
41 Then they took away the stone from the place where the dead was laid. And Jesus lifted up his eyes, and said, Father, I thank thee that thou hast heard me.
42 And I knew that thou hearest me always: but because of the people which stand by I said it, that they may believe that thou hast sent me.
43 And when he thus had spoken, he cried with a loud voice, Lazarus, come forth.
44 And he that was dead came forth, bound hand and foot with graveclothes: and his face was bound about with a napkin. Jesus saith unto them, Loose him, and let him go.
45 Then many of the Jews which came to Mary, and had seen the things which Jesus did, believed on him.
46 But some of them went their ways to the Pharisees, and told them what things Jesus had done.
47 Then gathered the chief priests and the Pharisees a council, and said, What do we? for this man doeth many miracles.
48 If we let him thus alone, all men will believe on him: and the Romans shall come and take away both our place and nation.
49 And one of them, named Caiaphas, being the high priest that same year, said unto them, Ye know nothing at all,
50 Nor consider that it is expedient for us, that one man should die for the people, and that the whole nation perish not.
51 And this spake he not of himself: but being high priest that year, he prophesied that Jesus should die for that nation;
52 And not for that nation only, but that also he should gather together in one the children of God that were scattered abroad.

Rome the false prophet

Rome changed the days and the months of Gods days and months from 1st, 2nd, 3rd, 4th, 5th, 6th and 7th days to Romans days in honour of their gods and goddesses of their gods and goddesses also the months to their Emperors names to honour their leaders and emperors in violation to God’s.

Roman Calendar

A sundial featuring Roman numerals

The original Roman calendar was assumedly borrowed, in part, from the culturally advanced Greeks.

Unfortunately, this early calendar was based on 10 months and only 304 days. The remaining 61 days that were later discovered to have been missing, were basically ignored and just occurred sometime during the winter season.

The 10 months, beginning in modern March, were named Martius, Aprilis, Maius, Junius, Quintilis, Sextilis, September, October, November, and December. The last six of these months were derivatives from the Latin words for five, six, seven, eight, nine, and ten, respectively. According to legend, Romulus, the fist King of Rome, is supposed to have introduced this calendar in the 8th century BC.

A following king, Numa Pompilius, is accredited with the addition of Januarius and Februarius, as winter months, to the calendar. Other reforms are often attributed to the Etruscan King Tarquinius Priscus, who ruled between 616 and 579 BC. These additions and the rest of the calendar were months, however, were still based on a lunar cycle, making the Roman year 355 days long. The ancient astronomers did have at least limited knowledge of the Solar year and periodic adjustments were made to bring the calendar in line with the appropriate season. Every other year a month called Mercedinus was inserted after February (March was the beginning of the year) adding an additional 23 or 24 days to the year. Mercedinus, which translates as payment for work was the time when property lessees paid rents due to their landlords.

Later in the Republic, Mercedinus gradually became known as Intercalans and could have variable lengths to right the seasons to the weather. It simply meant an inserted length of time into the calendar. It was the duty of the Pontifex Maximus to decide when and how long an Intercalans would be implemented.

The Romans referred to years in a couple of ways. Each year was recorded as a length of time from the traditional founding of Rome, in 753 BC. The Latin term Ab Urbe Condita, abbreviated as AUC, literally meaning from the founding of the city, was the correct terminology. Additionally, years could be referred to as the year in which a particular Consul was in office. As examples, the modern year 59 BC, would’ve been known as 694 AUC, or the year of the first consulship of Gaius Julius Caesar. Three days were structured with particular importance in the Roman calendar. The periods in between these intervals were of various lengths and days were counted backwards to the appropriate major day. For example, as the Calends was the first day of the month, March 23rd would be referred to as 9 days before the Calends of April.

Calends (or Kalends) – Occurred on the first day of every month and it had more days than the other two period combined. It spanned more than two lunar phases, starting from the day after a full moon and continuing through the moon’s last quarter and waning period, then past the dark new moon until another lunar crescent was sighted. The day of Kalends began a new month. It was dedicated to the god Juno.

Ides – Occurred on the 15th day of every month which contained 31 days, and the 13th day of all other months. Ides was dedicated to Jupiter and was originally based on the date of a full moon. Because a full moon occurs halfway thru each lunar cycle, its day was called “Idus” from the Latin word meaning to divide. The next new moon was expected to develop between 15 to 17 days. Variations in this length of time, due to the lunar and solar cycles not corresponding exactly, led to Ides becoming mainly a day marking the middle of the month.

Nones – Always occured nine days before the Ides, on either the 5th or 7th of the month, depending on the length of the month. It was representative of the moon reaching its first quarter phase. As it was the duty of the Pontifex Maximus to assign these days, he would, after viewing the moon, assign how long it would take for the next phase to begin. If, on the day after the Kalends, he determined that it would be 5 days until the new crescent moon would appear, the day would then be referred to as the 5th day before Nones.

The Julian Calendar

During the Late Republic, social disorder, political strife and an ongoing series of civil wars left the maintenance of the calendar in complete disarray. By the time Julius Caesar consolidated his power in 46 BC, the calendar months were off by as much as several months in comparison to the seasons.

Fortunately, while Caesar was in Alexandria, Egypt, he had access to the ancient world’s foremost astronomy experts. The Egyptians were able to calculate the length of the actual solar year as 365.25 days and the winter solstice as December 24.

While the Eqyptians did the work, Caesar was the one who both authorized and implemented its use, thereby receiving the credit. Regardless, its accuracy at the time it was developed was remarkable, and only a millennium of a slight annual difference would eventually accumulate. The new Julian Calendar would follow the solar year, rather than lunar, with a total of 365 days vs. 355. The intercalary month was eliminated and the leap year, adding a day to February every 4th year, was adopted as well. In 46 BC, the calendar had to be set right before the new one could begin. A total of 3 intercalary months were inserted prior to the start of the new year. 46 BC, therefore, or 707 AUC to the Romans, was fifteen months and about 445 days long according to the calendar.

The fifth month, Quintilis, was renamed Julius (July) in honor of Julius Caesar. Likewise, Sextilis was changed in 8 BC in honor of his heir and eventual first Emperor, Augustus, changing it to the name we now know as August. This basic transformation has essentially remained intact for two millennia and represents the foundation of the western calendar still in use today.

It’s also the common opinion that Augustus moved a day from February to August in order to make his month the same number of days as Caesar’s (July). However, there is little actual evidence to support this. We know that Caesar made every even month 30 days (except February) and this would seem to fit for August as the 8th month. No ancient sources seem to mention the movement of the day, even those who came after Augustus, who could’ve done so without fear of reprisal. While it seems to fit that Augustus added a day to the 30-day even month of August, there just isn’t enough evidence to support this without a doubt.

Even the historian Suetonius, who assuredly printed any rumor or gossip about his subjects without concern over factual data, fails to mention the movement of the day:

Inasmuch as the calendar, which had been set in order by the Deified Julius, had later been confused and disordered through negligence, he restored it to its former system [8 B.C.]; and in making this arrangement he called the month Sextilis by his own surname, rather than his birthmonth September, because in the former he had won his first consulship and his most brilliant victories.

Unfortunately, as suggested, a slight miscalculation on the part of the ancients left Renaissance scholars in a bit of difficulty. The actual year is 11 minutes and 14 seconds longer than what was calculated by Caesar and his Egyptian astronomers, so over the centuries, the difference grew to as much as 10 days. By 1582 AD, while the difference was still fairly negligible in comparison to seasonal circumstances, Pope Gregor XIII devised a new calendar, simply adjusting the old. The removal of three leap years each four centuries, basically, every year divisable by 100, but not 400, was removed from the calendar going forward.

The difference in future years was then taken care of, but Gregor also had to remove 10 days from the month of October, 1582 to bring things back in line. This reduced the error to almost nothing. The Gregorian Calendar, while more accurate then the Julian, took some time to catch on. Many European nations adopted it rather quickly in the 17th century, but Britain and her colonies, including the United States, waited until much later in the 18th century. Russia was the last of the western nations by doing so in the 20th century.

Number
of days
in the
month
Julian Calendar
Months with 31 daysMonths with 30 daysMonth with 28 days
Januarius, Augustus, DecemberMartius, Maius, Julius, OctoberAprilis, Junius, September, NovemberFebruarius
Latin names of days in the months
1KalendsKalendsKalendsKalends
2Ante Diem IV NonesAnte Diem VI NonesAnte Diem IV NonesAnte Diem IV Nones
3Ante Diem III NonesAnte Diem V NonesAnte Diem III NonesAnte Diem III Nones
4Pridie NonesAnte Diem IV NonesPridie NonesPridie Nones
5NonesAnte Diem III NonesNonesNones
6Ante Diem VIII IdesPridie NonesAnte Diem VIII IdesAnte Diem VIII Ides
7Ante Diem VII IdesNonesAnte Diem VII IdesAnte Diem VII Ides
8Ante Diem VI IdesAnte Diem VIII IdesAnte Diem VI IdesAnte Diem VI Ides
9Ante Diem V IdesAnte Diem VII IdesAnte Diem V IdesAnte Diem V Ides
10Ante Diem IV IdesAnte Diem VI IdesAnte Diem IV IdesAnte Diem IV Ides
11Ante Diem III IdesAnte Diem V IdesAnte Diem III IdesAnte Diem III Ides
12Pridie IdesAnte Diem IV IdesPridie IdesPridie Ides
13IdesAnte Diem III IdesIdesIdes
14Ante Diem XIX KalendsPridie IdesAnte Diem XVIII KalendsAnte Diem XVI Kalends
15Ante Diem XVIII KalendsIdesAnte Diem XVII KalendsAnte Diem XV Kalends
16Ante Diem XVII KalendsAnte Diem XVII KalendsAnte Diem XVI KalendsAnte Diem XIV Kalends
17Ante Diem XVI KalendsAnte Diem XVI KalendsAnte Diem XV KalendsAnte Diem XIII Kalends
18Ante Diem XV KalendsAnte Diem XV KalendsAnte Diem XIV KalendsAnte Diem XII Kalends
19Ante Diem XIV KalendsAnte Diem XIV KalendsAnte Diem XIII KalendsAnte Diem XI Kalends
20Ante Diem XIII KalendsAnte Diem XIII KalendsAnte Diem XII KalendsAnte Diem X Kalends
21Ante Diem XII KalendsAnte Diem XII KalendsAnte Diem XI KalendsAnte Diem IX Kalends
22Ante Diem XI KalendsAnte Diem XI KalendsAnte Diem X KalendsAnte Diem VIII Kalends
23Ante Diem X KalendsAnte Diem X KalendsAnte Diem IX KalendsAnte Diem VII Kalends
24Ante Diem IX KalendsAnte Diem IX KalendsAnte Diem VIII KalendsAnte Diem VI Kalends
25Ante Diem VIII KalendsAnte Diem VIII KalendsAnte Diem VII KalendsAnte Diem V Kalends
26Ante Diem VII KalendsAnte Diem VII KalendsAnte Diem VI KalendsAnte Diem IV Kalends
27Ante Diem VI KalendsAnte Diem VI KalendsAnte Diem V KalendsAnte Diem III Kalends
28Ante Diem V KalendsAnte Diem V KalendsAnte Diem IV KalendsPridie Kalends
29Ante Diem IV KalendsAnte Diem IV KalendsAnte Diem III Kalends
30Ante Diem III KalendsAnte Diem III KalendsPridie Kalends
31Pridie KalendsPridie Kalends

Overview of the Months of the Roman Year

Months of the Roman Year
Roman MonthOriginDays in Republican CalendarDays in Julian Calendar
Januarius (January)The God Janus2931
Februarius (February)From the Februa festivals which were celebrated at the end of the Roman year. 2828
Martius (March)The God Mars3131
Aprilis (April)The Etruscan God Aprilis2930
Maius (May)The Goddess Maia3131
Junius (June)The God Juno2930
Julius (July)Named for Julius Caesar, originally named Quintillis (the 5th month).3131
Augustus (August)Named for Augustus Caesar, originally named Sextilis (the 6th month).2931
SeptemberThe 7th month.2930
OctoberThe 8th month.3131
NovemberThe 9th month.2930
DecemberThe 10th month.2931
Total Days355365

Roman Days of the Week

Days of the Roman Week
Roman DayRough TranslationModern DayModern Source
Dies SaturniDay of SaturnSaturdayDirect passage from Latin
Dies SolisDay of the SunSundayDirect passage from Latin
Dies LunaeDay of the MoonMondayDirect passage from Latin
Dies MartisDay of MarsTuesdayOriginally Tiwesdaeg ‘The day of Tiw’,
from the Norse Tysdagr.
Dies MercuriiDay of MercuryWednesdayOriginally Wodnesdaeg ‘the day of Woden’ (Odin), from Norse Odinsdagr.
Dies JovisDay of JupiterThursdayOriginally Thursdaeg ‘the day of Thor’,
from Norse Thorsdagr.
Dies VenerisDay of VenusFridayOriginally Frigesdaeg ‘the day of Freya’,
from Norse Freyjasdagr.

Did you know…
The purpose of the calendar is to reckon past or future time, to show how many days until a certain event takes place, or how long since something important happened. Most of the oldest calendars were lunar calendars, based on the time interval from one new moon to the next. This is a so called lunation.

Did you know…
The first reform of the calendar was attributed to Numa Pompilius, the second of the seven traditional Kings of Rome. He is said to have reduced the 30-day months to 29 days and to have added January (29 days) and February (28 days) to the end of the calendar around 713 BC, and thus brought the length of the calendar year up to 355 days.

Did you know…
The Romans did not have weekdays in the same sense as our Monday, Tuesday, etc., however, they did have a defined markers within each month. Originally, the month and the markers were based on the moon.

Did you know…
In 44 BC Julius Caesar changed the name of the month Quintillis to Julius, after himself. The following year he decided (based on the advice of an astronomer) to use a purely solar calendar with 365 days. This calendar is known as the Julian calendar in his name.

Did you know…
The astronomer Sosigenes from Alexandria was given, by Julius Caesar, the task of designing an easy-to-use and exact calendar.

Did you know…
The soothsayer’s warning to Julius Caesar, “Beware the Ides of March,” has forever imbued that date with a sense of foreboding. But in Roman times the expression “Ides of March” did not necessarily evoke a dark mood-it was simply the standard way of saying “March 15.”

The bible has thirty days in the month according to God’s calendar, references Exodus 14.34; and many more referrences all through the bible

The bible has thirty days i the month, reference Exodus

This evil beast worked with the power of the first beast. Well, he does exactly what he sees the first beast do in ruling merciless, wickedly and uses their subjects as slaves, killing some for spots and entertainment or just for fun. They do not have any regard to human beings.

This beast made the world to worship the first beast and to make reverence to him in obedience to his decree of worshipping on Sunday which the first beast decreed in violation to God’s commandment of 7th day Sabbath keeping honouring the Almighty God who created the heavens of heavens and earth.
This evil beasts performed wonders in front of the whole through sorceries, mediums, witchcraft magical means and wizardry. Speaking blasphemous words against (High) God. He performed wonders before the unsuspected world in the conquest that she made as the fierce Roman Empires and her influence on many nations that she conquered and turned into slavery with hard labour.
This evil beast known as Rome forced people to make an image to the first beast and forced people to worship the image of the beast and anyone that refuses to worship the image are killed, their belongings confiscated, or destroyed or imprisoned, or burnt alive or fed to Hungary beast. This making of the image of the beast was when Justinian elevated the Pope to be the head of all churches all over the world not just the Roman Catholic Churches alone. The Pope was addressed as the Pontiff, his holiness, infallible and the vicar of Christ or representative of Christ on earth. And has power like that of Jesus Christ to forgive sins and can excommunicate people from the churches. He instituted many festivals like Easter, Christmas, Valentine day, Mother’s Day, Father’s Day and Halloween days. He removed the 7th day Sabbath of God to the Sunday worship. He elevated Mary the mother of our Lord Jesus Christ as queen of heaven and that she is the co-creator with Christ. He told the churches to pray to Mary for help and the forgiveness of sins. He made numberless images of Mary and all the death people that he promoted to sainthood, even if they did not accept Jesus Christ before they died. He canonizes dead people to sainthood at his own will. He forced people to pray to images of dead people and worship them.

He forces the world to receive a mark of the beast on their right hand or their foreheads. Now this is what the Lord made to understand the meaning of ones right hand and foreheads

This mark is definitely the decree of Sunday worship that was decreed by the Papacy to supersede the 7th day Sabbath that was decreed by the Almighty God in the Book of Genesis 2.1-3

Thus the heavens and the earth were finished, and all the hosts of them

And on the seventh day God ended His work which He had made; and He rested on the seventh day from all His work which He had made

And God blessed the seventh day, and sanctified it; because that in it He had rested from all His work which God created and made

This passage is to do with the glory of God Almighty who is the source of all things visible and invincible in heavens of heavens and earth. God specifically said that He will not share His glory with anything. Isaiah 42.8 I am the Lord, that is My name, and My glory will I not give to another, neither My prise to graven images

To crown the sayings of God He predicted that someone will come to change His Laws in Daniel 7.25 And he shall speak great words against the Most High, and shall wear out the saints of the Most High, and think to change times and laws: and they shall be given into his hand until a time and times and the dividing of time

He will think to change times and laws of God. The times were changed by the Julian calendar but the Gregorian calendar made amends to it by adding the the Ten day’s that Julian calendar dropped from the calendar: when the Julian calendar in 1582 was corrected by the Pope Gregory Leon as Gregorian calendar.These Popes played God in changing land Thinkstock to adding to God’s time or taking from it. This has never had any effect on the bible calendar. The week in use at the time of Christ is exactly the same as what we use in our calendar today, nothing lost whatsoever. Our Sunday is still the same that God named for His creation 1st day of the week is Sunday. The Saturday is still the seventh day. One might go further to say what about the different times or distance of Countries like America and other countries, the answer is every country has Saturday or Sunday. That is why God the creator of days, months and years Genesis 1. 14, And. God said Let there be lights in the firmament of heaven to divide the day from the night; and let them be. for signs, and. for seasons and for days, and years. That is exactly why God’s feats days are fixed, and New year fixed and the Sabbath as well . God is not a God of confusion, Every God did was accurate, perfect and must be obeyed till eternity It has come the point now as Paul the apostle said in the second epistle to the Thessalonians 2.3. Let no man deceive you by any means; for that day shall not come, “except there come a falling away first,” and that man of sin be revealed, the son of perdition ( the antichrist)This is the revival that the churches are praying for and some did not belong. This revival will be mainly for the churches all over the world, when real believers in Jesus Christ will come back to accept the commandments, the feats, and the New Year of God which He had ordained to set His saints apart from the world before the foundation of the world.The Papacy is of so great authority and power that he has been authorised by the Almighty God to modify, explain, interpret even divine laws. In the Catholic catechism, the divine law of God was completely taken out, the tenth commandments was divided into two, and more surprisingly, the fourth Commandments ( God’s 7th day Sabbath) was changed to 6th day in violation to God’s words in Leviticus 23. 14. 
It is very appropriate at this time to talk about the the the saints of God “given into the hand of the Papacy “ in the book of Daniel chapter 7.25. What the the given into the Papacy’s hands meant according to bible interpretation. What the frontlets means and what our foreheads means as you read along below.

THE MYSTERY OF OUR hands and the frontlets or foreheads REVEALED BY THE HOLY SPIRIT

PART 1

What is our hands? The dictionary says the extremity of the arm beyond the wrist, also a pointer, it   is the part of the body that we use for all that we do, known as the works of our hands.

Genesis 3:6 And when the woman saw that the tree was good for food, and that it was pleasant to the eyes, and a tree to be desired to make one wise, she took of the fruit thereof, and did eat and gave also unto her husband with her and he did eat, and sin began to reign.

Genesis 3:22, lest he put forth his hand, and take also of the tree of life and eat, and live forever.

As Christians, God made us to praise Him, psalm 134:2 says lift up your hands in the sanctuary, and bless the Lord, psalm 28:says hear the voice of my supplications, when I cry unto thee, when I lift up my hands towards thy holy oracle.

According to God in the Bible, all that we do, say, think, meditate or talk are termed as the works of our hands

2ND CHRONICLES 6:4 AND HE SAID, BLESSED BE THE LORD GOD OF ISRAEL, WHO HATH WITH HIS HANDS FULFILLED THAT WHICH HE SPAKE WITH HIS MOUTH TO MY FATHER DAVID,SAYING:………………….

In 2nd chronicles 6:15 THOU WHICH HAST KEPT WITH THY SERVANT DAVID MY FATHER THAT WHICH THOU HAST PROMISED HIM;AND SPAKEST WITH THY MOUTH,AND HSAT FULFILLED IT WITH THINE HAND, AS IT IS TODAY. 

Ezekiel 9:4 And, behold, six men came from the way of the higher gate, which lieth toward the north, and every man a slaughter weapon in his hand; and one man among them was clothed with linen, with a writer’s inkhorn by his side: and they went in, and stood beside the brasen altar.

And the glory of the God of Israel was gone up from the cherub, whereupon he was, to the threshold of the house. And he called to the man clothed with linen, which had the writer’s inkhorn by his side;

And the Lord said unto him, Go through the midst of the city, through the midst of Jerusalem, and set a mark upon the foreheads of the men that sigh and that cry for all the abominations that be done in the midst thereof.

The ink horn here is the best way that Ezekiel can describe this event, physical things are shown to describe the spiritual

 Psalm 118:15&16[js1] 

15 The voice of rejoicing and salvation is in the tabernacles of the righteous: the right hand of the Lord doeth valiantly.

16 The right hand of the Lord is exalted: the right hand of the Lord doeth valiantly

Exodus 13:9And it shall be for a sign unto thee upon thine hand, and for a memorial between thine eyes, that the Lord’s law may be in thy mouth: for with a strong hand hath the Lord brought thee out of Egypt

Exodus 31:13;17
13 
Speak thou also unto the children of Israel, saying, Verily my sabbaths ye shall keep: for it is a sign between me and you throughout your generations; that ye may know that I am the Lord that doth sanctify you.

Exodus 31:17

King James Version (KJV)

17 It is a sign between me and the children of Israel for ever: for in six days the Lord made heaven and earth, and on the seventh day he rested, and was refreshed.

John 19:15 and he laid his hands on them, 

Revelation 10:2   And he had in his hand a little book open: and he set his right foot upon the sea, and his left foot on the

Deuteronomy  6:8  And thou shalt bind them for a sign upon thine hand, and they shall be as frontlets between thine eye

Deuteronomy  11:18

King James Version (KJV)

18 Therefore shall ye lay up these my words in your heart and in your soul, and bind them for a sign upon your hand, that they may be as frontlets between your eyes

When God told the Israelites to bind the law which is the 10 commandments on their hands, it is to take it with faith and write it spiritually as a sign or mark on their hand believing that God had written it there for them to obey it and by Gods grace to do what God says, unfortunately, they acted  in a canal way and wrote it on papers or leather and tied it to their hands. Remember the one on the tassel in Deuteronomy 22:12Thou shalt make thee fringes upon the four quarters of thy vesture, wherewith thou coverest thyself.

Here they did not write the laws on the fringes but spiritually reminded them of the 10 commandments which are Gods words. Remember the woman with the issue of blood who says if only I can touch the hem of His garment I will be healed. Every word of God is a spirit John 6:63It is the spirit that quickeneth; the flesh profiteth nothing: the words that I speak unto you, they are spirit, and they are life

Deuteronomy 6:7,8,9

7.And thou shalt teach them diligently unto thy children, and shalt talk of them when thou sittest in thine house, and when thou walkest by the way, and when thou liest down, and when thou risest up.

This is exactly what God expected all His followers to do in faith as we have accepted Jesus Christ by faith to do His will by His grace. Every word of God is a spirit which we have to obey by His grace.

The above reference teaches us that the 10 Commandments and the feasts of God are to be diligently obeyed, taught when we sittest in our house. Or to the congregations of God, when we walkest by the way, when we liest down, when we risest up

Deuteronomy 6:8

King James Version (KJV)

And thou shalt bind them for a sign upon thine hand, and they shall be as frontlets between thine eyes.

And thou shalt write them upon the posts of thy house, and on thy gates.

You can see here the utmost importance of the 10 commandments

All these are to be done by faith and they are spiritual things. The accepting of Jesus Christ is by faith in what He said and it is by His Grace as well

The same goes to the frontlets or our foreheads: God want His 10 commandments to be accepted in our thinking faculties, minds and hearts that stands as signs or the mark of God on our foreheads or hands.

 But Satan beguiled us like  in the garden of Eden. Our thoughts and our actions work together by Gods grace in faith.

The same Satan worked through the Emperors and the Papacy of Rome to change the laws of God and His holy days as God predicted in the book of Daniel 7:25

25 And he shall speak great words against the most High, and shall wear out the saints of the most High, and think to change times and laws: and they shall be given into his hand until a time and times and the dividing of time.

This is why satan deceived Eve and Adam so that they can depart from the commandments of God that says Thou shalt no eat of the tree  of  good and evil

This tells us that there has always been the commandments of God from the creation of the world.

Satan knowingly, deceitfully, wickedly used the minds of the Roman leaders and the Papacy to change the law of God as predicted by God Himself Daniel 7:25, the saints will be given into his-(Satan) hand

13 Speak thou also unto the children of Israel, saying, Verily my sabbaths ye shall keep: for it is a sign between me and you throughout your generations; that ye may know that I am the Lord that doth sanctify you.

14 Ye shall keep the sabbath therefore; for it is holy unto you: every one that defileth it shall surely be put to death: for whosoever doeth any work therein, that soul shall be cut off from among his people.

15 Six days may work be done; but in the seventh is the sabbath of rest, holy to the Lord: whosoever doeth any work in the sabbath day, he shall surely be put to death.

16 Wherefore the children of Israel shall keep the sabbath, to observe the sabbath throughout their generations, for a perpetual covenant.

17 It is a sign between me and the children of Israel for ever: for in six days the Lord made heaven and earth, and on the seventh day he rested, and was refreshed.

18 And he gave unto Moses, when he had made an end of communing with him upon mount Sinai, two tables of testimony, tables of stone, written with the finger of God. The 10 Commandments were the only thing that God wrote with His hands which He wrote twice.

To understand more about the works of our hands please read Jerimiah chapter 25:1-6; 32:30

All that we do in this world, our daily  activities are termed as the works of our hands

Churches,  all that you do on Sunday are the works of your hands that you have given to the antichrist,  who instituted the sunday  worship, you praised him, you give him glory and adore him instead of God who created the heavens and the earth.  


At this point, I have to include the other characteristics of the book of Daniel chapter 7.23 concerning the beast from the earth

Thus he said, the fourth beast shall be the fourth kingdom upon the earth, which shall be diverse from all the kingdoms,and shall devour the whole earth, and shall tread it down, and break in pieces. The denotes the ruthless rule of Rome, by taken all the conquered places and lord over them, changed their customs, cultures, languages, at the moment the whole world is under Roman rules in calendar, months that she named after their gods and goddesses, days lime Monday to Sunday after their Gods and goddesses, months after their emperors.

Now the evil characteristics of this beast are known who in the world can have these evil characteristics but Rome.

So God is true to His word when He told me that Rome is the false prophet according to Gods revelation to me even with diagrams which will appear in this book

The atrocities of Rome to the people of God in the bible

Gospel of John 11.48

48 If we let him thus alone, all men will believe on him: and the Romans shall come and take away both our place and nation

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SearchHome > Content Index > People in the Bible > New Testament Groups > Roman What is the significance of the Roman Empire in biblical history?


Roman Empire

Question: “What is the significance of the Roman Empire in biblical history?”

Answer: 
The Roman Empire was the human political entity that God used to prepare the world for the birth of the Messiah and for the spread of the gospel.

At the end of the Old Testament, Israel had returned from exile, Jerusalem had been rebuilt, and the temple had been reconstructed and was functioning again. The world power was the Median (or Medo-Persian) Empire. In the 400 years between the testaments, the Greek Empire rose to prominence under Alexander and then splintered upon his death. Israel was persecuted by the Seleucids, one of the splinter kingdoms of the Greek Empire based in Syria. The Seleucid ruler, Antiochus IV Epiphanes(“manifest god”) was especially brutal. He enforced Hellenization of the Jews and profaned the temple. His actions lead to the Maccabean revolt in which Israel expelled the Greeks and gained their independence.

During the time of revolt, the Maccabees were supported by the up-and-coming Romans (1 Maccabees 815:15–24). As the power of Rome grew, it became an empire and swallowed up Israel/Palestine. The Jews were allowed to maintain their religious practices as long as they did not make trouble for Rome. Rome placed a series of puppet kings (the Herod family) and military governors (e.g., Pilate, Felix, Festus) over various provinces of Palestine.

Although Scripture prophesied centuries before that the Messiah would be born in Bethlehem (Micah 5:2), Mary and Joseph were firmly established in Nazareth of Galilee (Luke 1:26). The Roman Empire moved them to the city where Christ was to be born. A decree of the Roman Emperor Augustus (Octavian) mandated that all should return to their home for registration so “So Joseph also went up from the town of Nazareth in Galilee to Judea, to Bethlehem the town of David, because he belonged to the house and line of David. He went there to register with Mary, who was pledged to be married to him and was expecting a child” (Luke 2:4–5). God used the decree of a pagan emperor to move Mary and Joseph into the place that had been prophesied. Certainly, Mary and Joseph could have chosen to go to Bethlehem on their own in order to fulfill the prophecy; however, the Roman emperor’s decree that set everything in motion demonstrated that Mary and Joseph did not manipulate events to “set up their son” as a potential Messiah.

One of the priorities of the Roman Empire (perhaps the main priority) was peace, which it accomplished with an iron hand. The Pax Romana (“peace of Rome”) guaranteed that people could live and travel within the Roman Empire in relative safety. Roads were constructed that made travel much easier, and a common language broke down communication barriers among various ethnic groups and provided something of a common culture. The apostle Paul traveled all over the Roman Empire on Roman roads and shared the gospel with diverse groups of Gentiles in the common Greek language. (The common trade language of the Roman Empire was Greek and was not replaced with Latin for several centuries.) Paul’s Roman citizenship allowed him to move about the empire more freely and provided him with an additional measure of protection (see Acts 22:22–29). Not only Paul, but many Christians spread out all over the Roman Empire, taking the gospel with them.

It is commonly accepted that Rome was the primary persecutor of the church in the first century, but an examination of the evidence in the New Testament does not bear this out. Widespread persecution by the Romans did not occur until the time of Nero (the late 60s) and later emperors. The observable pattern in the New Testament is that Rome cared very little about Christians and only took action against them at the instigation of the Jewish authorities (see Acts 22:30). Rome often attempted to placate the Jewish authorities to keep the peace. The Roman governor Pilate wanted to release Jesus, but the Jewish authorities demanded His execution (Matthew 27:15–23). Likewise, Paul was most often opposed by his own countrymen who either took things into their own hands, stirred up the pagan populace, or appealed to the Roman authorities for help. This happened at Thessalonica (Acts 17:1–9) and at Corinth (Acts 18:12–17). The one time when Paul was arrested by the Roman authorities, he used his status as a Roman citizen to gain an apology upon his release (Acts 16:35–40).

When Paul was spotted in the Jerusalem temple, it was his countrymen who attacked him and the Roman authorities who arrested/rescued him (Acts 21:27–36). The Roman governor saved Paul from a plot by the Jews to kill him (Acts 23). Both Felix and Festus, Roman governors, are presented as being sympathetic to Paul but unwilling to release him because it would anger the Jewish leadership (Acts 24–26.) Ultimately, Paul appealed to Caesar, for he knew he could not get a fair trial in Jerusalem. In the final analysis, the Roman governor Festus and the Roman puppet king Agrippa agreed: “This man is doing nothing to deserve death or imprisonment” (Acts 26:21).

The Roman authorities demanded absolute allegiance to Rome first and foremost. Because of the Jews’ longstanding “tradition” of monotheism, they were exempted from offering sacrifices to the emperor. Initially, Christians were considered members of a sect of Judaism and were given the same exemption. However, Jews began to more forcefully distance themselves from Christians, and Rome started to take a harder look at Christians. By the second century, Christians were persecuted as enemies of the state because of their refusal to honor the emperor as a deity. However, this persecution is not evident within the pages of the New Testament.

In AD 70, the Roman general Titus (son of Emperor Vespasian) laid waste to Jerusalem and destroyed the temple in fulfillment of Jesus’ pronouncement in Luke 21:6.

Three Roman emperors are mentioned by name in the New Testament. Augustus, already mentioned above in connection with the census that moved Mary and Joseph to Bethlehem for Jesus’ birth. Tiberius, who was emperor when John the Baptist started his public ministry (Luke 3:1). And Claudius is mentioned as the emperor who expelled all Jews from Rome (Acts 18:1). The Roman historian Seutonius is his work The Lives of the Twelve Caesars says that the expulsion was the result of Jewish disputes over someone called Chrestus. Many scholars believe that this may be a reference to Christ. Most Roman authorities were uninterested and uninformed with the particulars of Jewish disputes (see Acts 25:18–20), so it is understandable that they might get the name wrong. Within a few years, the Jews had returned to Rome.

In summary, the Roman Empire had a tremendous impact in the circumstances regarding Jesus’ birth and crucifixion, and unintentionally provided the necessary infrastructure to allow the apostles to spread the gospel throughout the Mediterranean world

The persecution of Christians in the Roman Empire was carried out by the state and also by local authorities on a sporadic, ad hocbasis, often at the whims of local communities. Starting in 250 AD, empire-wide persecution took place as an indirect consequence of an edict by the emperor Decius. This edict was in force for eighteen months, during which time some Christians were killed while others apostatised to escape execution.

Romans, for the most part, were tolerant in matters of religious belief and allowed countless religious sects, cults, saviors, and redeemers to proselytize without restrictions. Loyal and submissive members of society could believe in any Deity they wanted, including Jesus. Belief was a private matter of no interest to the Roman authorities. Roman cohesion was based on obedience to authority and on public pledges of loyalty to the state – epitomized by symbolical sacrifices to the Roman Gods.[1]Contrary to later misperceptions, at first, Romans did not oppose belief in Jesus. Rather, Romans persecuted whoever refused to pledge loyalty to Roman authority, to the inclusion of those believers in Jesus that refused to sacrifice to the Roman Gods (the equivalent of an oath of allegiance). Roman persecution of Gentile believers in Jesus lasted more than two centuries and included harassment at the local level, and officially sanctioned or decreed persecution. Officially sanctioned Roman persecution was most intense during the reigns of Marcus Aurelius (161–180), Decius (249–251), Diocletian (284–305) and Galerius (305–311).

All individuals living in the Roman Empire were free to believe whatever their souls desired, as long as the traditional protocol of symbolic submission and allegiance to imperial authority was performed. Christianity was outlawed after two centuries of persistent behavior that the Romans interpreted as defiant and subversive, and after three official persecutions failed to quell what the Romans considered to be seditious behavior. Pagans could not but interpret the refusal to sacrifice to the Roman Gods (by some, not all Gentile believers in Jesus) as an act of political defiance. [2] The point of contention, as seen from the Roman side, was not belief in Jesus. It was the refusal to acknowledge imperial authority. ‘The polytheistic worldview of the Romans did not incline them to understand a refusal to worship, even symbolically, the state gods.’ [3]Wilson concluded that eventually, ‘Christians’ (i.e. Pauline believers) would have been suspected of conspiracy and disloyalty. Per Wilson, Christianity appeared as a movement that promoted disruption of the established order and dangerous social tendencies. The prejudice became so instinctive that eventually, mere confession of the name Christian could be sufficient grounds for execution.[4]Per Zetterholm, the Jesus-believing Gentiles of Antioch found themselves in the peculiar position of having to publicly identify themselves as Jews subject to the tax to avoid prosecution for neglect of the cult. [5]

These persecutions heavily influenced the development of Christianity, shaping Christian theology and the structure of the Church. The effects of the persecutions included the writing of explanations and defenses of the Christian religion.

Contents

Duration and extent[edit]

Persecution of the early church had occurred sporadically and in localised areas since its beginning. The first persecution of Christians organised by the Roman government took place under the emperor Nero in 64 AD after the Great Fire of Rome. The Edict of Serdica was issued in 311 by the Roman emperor Galerius, officially ending the Diocletianic persecution of Christianity in the East. With the passage in 313 AD of the Edict of Milan, persecution of Christians by the Roman state ceased.[6] The total number of Christians who lost their lives because of these persecutions is unknown; although early church historian Eusebius, whose works are the only source for many of these events, speaks of “great multitudes” having perished, he is thought by many scholars today to have exaggerated their numbers.[6][7]

There was no empire-wide persecution of Christians until the reign of Decius in the third century.[8] Provincial governors had a great deal of personal discretion in their jurisdictions and could choose themselves how to deal with local incidents of persecution and mob violence against Christians. For most of the first three hundred years of Christian history, Christians were able to live in peace, practice their professions, and rise to positions of responsibility. Only for approximately ten out of the first three hundred years of the church’s history were Christians executed due to orders from a Roman emperor.[7]:129 Attempts at estimating the numbers involved are inevitably based on inadequate sources, but one historian of the persecutions estimates the overall numbers as between 5,500 and 6,500,[9]:536-537 a number also adopted by later writers including Yuval Noah Harari[10]

In the 300 years from the crucifixion of Christ to the conversion of Emperor Constantine, polytheistic Roman emperors initiated no more than four general persecutions of Christians. Local administrators and governors incited some anti-Christian violence of their own. Still, if we combine all the victims of all these persecutions, it turns out that in these three centuries, the polytheistic Romans killed no more than a few thousand Christians.

Reasons[edit]

See also: Religio licita and Religion in ancient Rome“Roman Hall of Justice”, Young Folks’ History of Rome, 1878

Social and Religious causes[edit]

Martyrdom of Calepodius (intaglio print)

Before 250 AD, persecution was not empire wide; it was localized, sporadic, often mob-led, with occasional actions from local authorities.[11]:86[12] Reasons for persecution can be understood by looking at a few main areas of conflict.

“The exclusive sovereignty of Christ clashed with Caesar’s claims to his own exclusive sovereignty.”[11]:87 The Roman empire practiced religious Syncretism and did not demand loyalty to one god, but they did demand preeminent loyalty to the state, and this was expected to be demonstrated through the practices of the state religion with numerous feast and festival days throughout the year.[13]:84–90[14]The nature of Christian monotheism prevented Christians from participating in anything involving ‘other gods’.[15]:60 Christians did not participate in feast days or processionals or offer sacrifices or light incense to the gods; this produced hostility.[12] They refused to offer incense to the Roman emperor, and in the minds of the people, the “emperor, when viewed as a god, was … the embodiment of the Roman empire”,[16] so Christians were seen as disloyal to both.[11]:87[17]:23 In Rome, “religion could be tolerated only as long as it contributed to the stability of the state” which would “brook no rival for the allegiance of its subjects. The state was the highest good in a union of state and religion.”[11]:87 In Christian monotheism the state was not the highest good.[11]:87[15]:60

“Christians moved their activities from the streets to the more secluded domains of houses, shops and women’s apartments…severing the normal ties between religion, tradition and public institutions like cities and nations”.[18]:119 This ‘privatizing of religion’ was another primary factor in persecution.[19]:3[18]:112,116,119 They sometimes met at night, in secret, and this aroused suspicion among the pagan population accustomed to religion as a public event; rumors abounded[18]:120,121 that Christians committed flagitiascelera, and maleficia— “outrageous crimes”, “wickedness”, and “evil deeds”, specifically, cannibalism and incest(referred to as “Thyestian banquets” and “Oedipodean intercourse“)— due to their rumored practices of eating the “blood and body” of Christ and referring to each other as “brothers” and “sisters”.[20][21]:128

Edward Gibbon wrote:

By embracing the faith of the Gospel the Christians incurred the supposed guilt of an unnatural and unpardonable offence. They dissolved the sacred ties of custom and education, violated the religious institutions of their country, and presumptuously despised whatever their fathers had believed as true, or had reverenced as sacred.[22]

Martyrdom of Saint Lawrence(Christian heroes and martyrs, 1895)

Christianity practiced an inclusivity not found in the social caste system of the Roman empire and was therefore perceived by its opponents as a “disruptive and, most significantly, a competitive menace to the traditional class/gender based order of Roman society”.[18]:120–126 Gibbon argued that the seeming tendency of Christian converts to renounce their family and country and their frequent predictions of impending disasters instilled a feeling of apprehension in their pagan neighbours.[23]

Much of the pagan populace believed that bad things would happen if the established pagan gods were not properly worshiped and reverenced.[24][25] By the end of the second century, the Christian apologist Tertullian complained about the widespread perception that Christians were the source of all disasters brought against the human race by the gods. ‘They think the Christians the cause of every public disaster, of every affliction with which the people are visited. If the Tiber rises as high as the city walls, if the Nile does not send its waters up over the fields, if the heavens give no rain, if there is an earthquake, if there is famine or pestilence, straightway the cry is, “Away with the Christians to the lions!”‘[26]

Roman Legal System[edit]

The Condemnation of Saint Lawrence by the emperor Valerian (Fra Angelico, c. 1450)

Due to the informal and personality-driven nature of the Roman legal system, nothing “other than a prosecutor” (an accuser, including a member of the public, not only a holder of an official position), “a charge of Christianity, and a governor willing to punish on that charge”[21]:123 was required to bring a legal case against a Christian. Roman law was largely concerned with property rights, leaving many gaps in criminal and public law. Thus the process cognitio extra ordinem (“special investigation”) filled the legal void left by both code and court. All provincial governors had the right to run trials in this way as part of their imperium in the province.[21]:114f

In cognitio extra ordinem, an accuser called a delator brought before the governor an individual to be charged with a certain offense—in this case, that of being a Christian. This delator was prepared to act as the prosecutor for the trial, and could be rewarded with some of the accused’s property if he made an adequate case or charged with calumnia(malicious prosecution) if his case was insufficient. If the governor agreed to hear the case—and he was free not to—he oversaw the trial from start to finish: he heard the arguments, decided on the verdict, and passed the sentence.[21]:116 Christians sometimes offered themselves up for punishment, and the hearings of such voluntary martyrs were conducted in the same way.

More often than not, the outcome of the case was wholly subject to the governor’s personal opinion. While some tried to rely on precedent or imperial opinion where they could, as evidenced by Pliny the Younger’s letter to Trajan concerning the Christians,[27] such guidance was often unavailable.[28]:35 In many cases months’ and weeks’ travel away from Rome, these governors had to make decisions about running their provinces according to their own instincts and knowledge.

Even if these governors had easy access to the city, they would not have found much official legal guidance on the matter of the Christians. Before the anti-Christian policies under Decius beginning in 250, there was no empire-wide edict against the Christians, and the only solid precedent was that set by Trajan in his reply to Pliny: the name of “Christian” alone was sufficient grounds for punishment and Christians were not to be sought out by the government. There is speculation that Christians were also condemned for contumacia—disobedience toward the magistrate, akin to the modern “contempt of court”—but the evidence on this matter is mixed.[21]:124 Melito of Sardis later asserted that Antoninus Pius ordered that Christians were not to be executed without proper trial.[28]:37

Given the lack of guidance and distance of imperial supervision, the outcomes of the trials of Christians varied widely. Many followed Pliny’s formula: they asked if the accused individuals were Christians, gave those who answered in the affirmative a chance to recant, and offered those who denied or recanted a chance to prove their sincerity by making a sacrifice to the Roman gods and swearing by the emperor’s genius. Those who persisted were executed.

According to the Christian apologist Tertullian, some governors in Africa helped accused Christians secure acquittals or refused to bring them to trial.[21]:117 Overall, Roman governors were more interested in making apostates than martyrs: one proconsul of Asia, Arrius Antoninus, when confronted with a group of voluntary martyrs during one of his assize tours, sent a few to be executed and snapped at the rest, “If you want to die, you wretches, you can use ropes or precipices.”[21]:137

During the Great Persecution which lasted from 303 to 312/313, governors were given direct edicts from the emperor. Christian churches and texts were to be destroyed, meeting for Christian worship was forbidden, and those Christians who refused to recant lost their legal rights. Later, it was ordered that Christian clergy be arrested and that all inhabitants of the empire sacrifice to the gods. Still, no specific punishment was prescribed by these edicts and governors retained the leeway afforded to them by distance.[29] Lactantius reported that some governors claimed to have shed no Christian blood,[30] and there is evidence that others turned a blind eye to evasions of the edict or only enforced it when absolutely necessary.

Government motivation[edit]

When a governor was sent to a province, he was charged with the task of keeping it pacata atque quieta—settled and orderly.[21]:121 His primary interest would be to keep the populace happy; thus when unrest against the Christians arose in his jurisdiction, he would be inclined to placate it with appeasement lest the populace “vent itself in riots and lynching.”[21]:122

Political leaders in the Roman Empire were also public cult leaders. Roman religionrevolved around public ceremonies and sacrifices; personal belief was not as central an element as it is in many modern faiths. Thus while the private beliefs of Christians may have been largely immaterial to many Roman elites, this public religious practice was in their estimation critical to the social and political well-being of both the local community and the empire as a whole. Honoring tradition in the right way – pietas – was key to stability and success.[31] Hence the Romans protected the integrity of cults practiced by communities under their rule, seeing it as inherently correct to honor one’s ancestral traditions; for this reason the Romans for a long time tolerated the highly exclusive Jewish sect, even though some Romans despised it.[21]:135 Historian H. H. Ben-Sasson has proposed that the “Crisis under Caligula” (37-41) was the “first open break” between Rome and the Jews.[32] After the First Jewish–Roman War (66-73), Jewswere officially allowed to practice their religion as long as they paid the Jewish tax. There is debate among historians over whether the Roman government simply saw Christians as a sect of Judaism prior to Nerva‘s modification of the tax in 96. From then on, practicing Jews paid the tax while Christians did not, providing hard evidence of an official distinction.[33] Part of the Roman disdain for Christianity, then, arose in large part from the sense that it was bad for society. In the 3rd century, the Neoplatonist philosopher Porphyry wrote:

How can people not be in every way impious and atheistic who have apostatized from the customs of our ancestors through which every nation and city is sustained? … What else are they than fighters against God?[34]

Once distinguished from Judaism, Christianity was no longer seen as simply a bizarre sect of an old and venerable religion; it was a superstitio.[21]:135 Superstition had for the Romans a much more powerful and dangerous connotation than it does for much of the Western world today: to them, this term meant a set of religious practices that were not only different, but corrosive to society, “disturbing a man’s mind in such a way that he is really going insane” and causing him to lose humanitas (humanity).[35] The persecution of “superstitious” sects was hardly unheard-of in Roman history: an unnamed foreign cult was persecuted during a drought in 428 BC, some initiates of the Bacchic cult were executed when deemed out-of-hand in 186 BC, and measures were taken against the Celtic Druids during the early Principate.[36]

Even so, the level of persecution experienced by any given community of Christians still depended upon how threatening the local official deemed this new superstitio to be. Christians’ beliefs would not have endeared them to many government officials: they worshipped a convicted criminal, refused to swear by the emperor’s genius, harshly criticized Rome in their holy books, and suspiciously conducted their rites in private. In the early third century one magistrate told Christians “I cannot bring myself so much as to listen to people who speak ill of the Roman way of religion.”[37]

History[edit]

Saint Blaise on trial before the Roman governor, Louvre

Overview[edit]

Prior to the reign of Decius (249-251 AD), the only known incident of persecution by the Roman state occurred under Nero in 64 AD. By the mid-2nd century, mobs were willing to throw stones at Christians, perhaps motivated by rival sects. The Persecution in Lyon (177 AD) was preceded by mob violence, including assaults, robberies and stonings.[38] Lucian tells of an elaborate and successful hoax perpetrated by a “prophet” of Asclepius, using a tame snake, in Pontus and Paphlagonia. When rumor seemed about to expose his fraud, the witty essayist reports in his scathing essay

… he issued a promulgation designed to scare them, saying that Pontus was full of atheists and Christians who had the hardihood to utter the vilest abuse of him; these he bade them drive away with stones if they wanted to have the god gracious.

Tertullian‘s Apologeticus of 197 was ostensibly written in defense of persecuted Christians and addressed to Roman governors.[39]Reconstruction of the Roman governor’s palace in Aquincum, Hungary

In 250 AD, the emperor Decius issued a decree requiring public sacrifice, a formality equivalent to a testimonial of allegiance to the emperor and the established order. There is no evidence that the decree was intended to target Christians but was intended as a form of loyalty oath. Decius authorized roving commissions visiting the cities and villages to supervise the execution of the sacrifices and to deliver written certificates to all citizens who performed them. Christians were often given opportunities to avoid further punishment by publicly offering sacrifices or burning incense to Roman gods, and were accused by the Romans of impiety when they refused. Refusal was punished by arrest, imprisonment, torture, and executions. Christians fled to safe havens in the countryside and some purchased their certificates, called libelli. Several councils held at Carthage debated the extent to which the community should accept these lapsed Christians.

The persecutions culminated with Diocletian and Galerius at the end of the third and beginning of the 4th century. Their anti-Christian actions, considered the largest, were to be the last major Roman pagan action. The Edict of Serdica, also called Edict of Toleration by Galerius, was issued in 311 in Serdica (today SofiaBulgaria) by the Roman emperor Galerius, officially ending the Diocletianic persecution of Christianity in the East. Constantine the Great soon came into power and in 313 completely legalized Christianity. It was not until Theodosius I in the latter 4th century, however, that Christianity would become the official religion of the Roman Empire.

64–250[edit]

“Persecution of the Christians”, Young Folks’ History of Rome (1878).

Prior to Nero’s accusation of arson and subsequent anti-Christian actions in 64, all animosity was apparently limited to intramural Jewish hostility. In the New Testament (Acts 18:2-3), a Jew named Aquila is introduced who, with his wife Priscilla, had recently come from Italy because emperor Claudius “had ordered all the Jews to leave Rome”. It is generally agreed that from Nero’s reign until Decius‘s widespread measures in 250, Christian persecution was isolated and localized.[21]:105–152 Although it is often claimed that Christians were persecuted for their refusal to worship the emperor, general dislike for Christians likely arose from their refusal to worship the gods or take part in sacrifice, which was expected of those living in the Roman Empire.[21]:105–152 Although the Jews also refused to partake in these actions, they were tolerated because they followed their own Jewish ceremonial law, and their religion was legitimized by its ancestral nature.[40]:130 On the other hand, they believed Christians, who were thought to take part in strange rituals and nocturnal rites, cultivated a dangerous and superstitious sect.[40]:125

During this period, anti-Christian activities were accusatory and not inquisitive.[21]:105–152 Governors played a larger role in the actions than did Emperors, but Christians were not sought out by governors, and instead were accused and prosecuted through a process termed cognitio extra ordinem. No reliable, extant description of a Christian trial exists, but evidence shows that trials and punishments varied greatly, and sentences ranged from acquittal to death.[41]

Nero[edit]

Main article: Great Fire of RomeSee also: Early centers of Christianity § RomeThe Torches of Nero, by Henryk Siemiradzki (1878). According to Tacitus, Nero used Christians as human torches

There are no references to the persecution of Christians by the Roman state prior to Nero, who according to Tacitus and later Christian tradition, blamed Christians for the Great Fire of Rome in 64,[21]:105–152 which destroyed portions of the city and economically devastated the Roman population. In the Annals of Tacitus, we read:

…To get rid of the report, Nero fastened the guilt and inflicted the most exquisite tortures on a class hated for their abominations, called Chrestians[42] by the populace. Christus, from whom the name had its origin, suffered the extreme penalty during the reign of Tiberius at the hands of one of our procurators, Pontius Pilatus, and a most mischievous superstition, thus checked for the moment, again broke out not only in Judæa, the first source of the evil, but even in Rome, where all things hideous and shameful from every part of the world find their centre and become popular.— Tacitus’ Annals 15.44, see Tacitus on Christ

This passage in Tacitus constitutes the only independent attestation that Nero blamed Christians for the Great Fire of Rome, and while it is generally believed to be authentic and reliable, some modern scholars have cast doubt on this view, largely because there is no further reference to Nero’s blaming of Christians for the fire until the late 4th century.[43][44]Suetonius, later to the period, does not mention any persecution after the fire, but in a previous paragraph unrelated to the fire, mentions punishments inflicted on Christians, who are described as “men following a new and malefic superstition.” Suetonius, however, does not specify the reasons for the punishment; he simply lists the fact together with other abuses put down by Nero.[44]:269[28]:34

It is unclear whether Christians were persecuted solely under the charge of organized arson or for other general crimes associated with Christianity.[21]:105–152[28]:32–50 Because Tertullian mentions an institutum Neronianum in his apology “To the Nations”, scholars also debate the possibility of a creation of a law or decree against the Christians under Nero. However, it has been argued that in context, the institutum Neronianum merely describes the anti-Christian activities; it does not provide a legal basis for them. Furthermore, no known writers show knowledge of a law against Christians.[28]:35

Domitian[edit]

According to some historians, Jews and Christians were heavily persecuted toward the end of Domitian‘s reign (89-96).[45] The Book of Revelation, which mentions at least one instance of martyrdom (Rev 2:13; cf. 6:9), is thought by many scholars to have been written during Domitian’s reign.[46] Early church historian Eusebius wrote that the social conflict described by Revelation reflects Domitian’s organization of excessive and cruel banishments and executions of Christians, but these claims may be exaggerated or false.[47] Some historians, however, have maintained that there was little or no anti-Christian activity during Domitian’s time.[48][49][50] The lack of consensus by historians about the extent of persecution during the reign of Domitian derives from the fact that while accounts of persecution exist, these accounts are very cursory or their reliability is debated.[28]:35

Often, reference is made to the execution of Flavius Clemens, a Roman consul and cousin of the Emperor, and the banishment of his wife, Flavia Domitilla, to the island of Pandateria. Eusebius wrote that Flavia Domitilla was banished because she was a Christian. However, in Cassius Dio‘s account (67.14.1-2), he only reports that she, along with many others, was guilty of sympathy for Judaism.[28]:36 Suetonius does not mention the exile at all.[28]:37 According to Keresztes, it is more probable that they were converts to Judaism who attempted to evade payment of the Fiscus Judaicus – the tax imposed on all persons who practiced Judaism (262-265).[46] In any case, no stories of anti-Christian activities during Domitian’s reign reference any sort of legal ordinances.[28]:35

Trajan[edit]

As a civilian emperor, Trajan corresponded with Pliny the Younger on the subject of how to deal with the Christians of Pontus, telling Pliny to continue to persecute Christians but not to accept anonymous denunciations in the interests of justice as well as of “the spirit of the age”. Non-citizens who admitted to being Christians and refused to recant, however, were to be executed “for obstinacy”. Citizens were sent to Rome for trial.[153]

Despite this, medieval Christian theologians considered Trajan to be a virtuous pagan.[5]

Hadrian[edit]

The emperor Hadrian (r. 117-138) also responding to a request for advice from a provincial governor about how to deal with Christians, granted Christians more leniency. Hadrian stated that merely being a Christian was not enough for action against them to be taken, they must also have committed some illegal act. In addition, “slanderous attacks” against Christians were not to be tolerated, meaning that anyone who brought an action against Christians but failed would face punishment themselves.

Marcus Aurelius to Maximinus the Thracian[edit]

Amphithéâtre des Trois-Gaules, in Lyon. The pole in the arena is a memorial to the people killed during this persecution.

Sporadic bouts of anti-Christian activity occurred during the period from the reign of Marcus Aurelius to that of Maximinus. Governors continued to play a more important role than emperors in persecutions during this period.[28]:35

In the first half of the third century, the relation of Imperial policy and ground-level actions against Christians remained much the same:

It was pressure from below, rather than imperial initiative, that gave rise to troubles, breaching the generally prevailing but nevertheless fragile, limits of Roman tolerance: the official attitude was passive until activated to confront particular cases and this activation normally was confined to the local and provincial level.[51]:616

Apostasy in the form of symbolic sacrifice continued to be enough to set a Christian free.[28]:35 It was standard practice to imprison a Christian after an initial trial, with pressure and an opportunity to recant.[51]:617

The number and severity of persecutions in various locations of the empire seemingly increased during the reign of Marcus Aurelius,161-180. The extent to which Marcus Aurelius himself directed, encouraged, or was aware of these persecutions is unclear and much debated by historians.[52] One of the most notable instances of persecution during the reign of Aurelius occurred in 177 at Lugdunum (present-day Lyons, France), where the Sanctuary of the Three Gauls had been established by Augustus in the late 1st century BC. The sole account is preserved by Eusebius. The persecution in Lyons started as an unofficial movement to ostracize Christians from public spaces such as the market and the baths, but eventually resulted in official action. Christians were arrested, tried in the forum, and subsequently imprisoned.[53] They were condemned to various punishments: being fed to the beasts, torture, and the poor living conditions of imprisonment. Slaves belonging to Christians testified that their masters participated in incest and cannibalism. Barnes cites this persecution as the “one example of suspected Christians being punished even after apostasy.”[28]:154 Eusebius, however, wrote his Ecclesiastical History in roughly 300 AD or 120 years after the events that he referenced and it is unclear if this event ever occurred. Moreover, the church father Irenaeus, the Christian Bishop of Lyon, where this incident allegedly took place, wrote his five volume Adversus Haereses in 180, just three years after the alleged persecution but makes no mention whatsoever of any persecution which happened in his city. Instead Irenaus writes: “The Romans have given the world peace, and we [Christians] travel without fear along the roads and across the sea wherever we will.” (Against Heresies, Book IV, Chapter 30, Sentence 3). Martyrdom of Saint Blandina, one of the martyrs of Lyons, stained glass window by Alexandre Mauvernay

A number of persecutions of Christians occurred in the Roman empire during the reign of Septimius Severus (193-211).The traditional view has been that Severus was responsible. This is based on a reference to a decree he is said to have issued forbidding conversions to Judaism and Christianity but this decree is known only from one source, the Augustan History, an unreliable mix of fact and fiction.[54]:184 Early church historian Eusebiusdescribes Severus as a persecutor, but the Christian apologist Tertullian states that Severus was well disposed towards Christians, employed a Christian as his personal physician and had personally intervened to save from “the mob” several high-born Christians whom he knew.[54]:184 Eusebius’ description of Severus as a persecutor likely derives merely from the fact that numerous persecutions occurred during his reign, including those known in the Roman martyrology as the martyrs of Madaura and Perpetua and Felicity in the Roman province of Africa, but these were probably as the result of local persecutions rather than empire-wide actions or decrees by Severus.[54]:185

Other instances of persecution occurred before the reign of Decius, but there are fewer accounts of them from 215 onward. This may reflect a decrease in hostility toward Christianity or gaps in the available sources.[28]:35 Perhaps the most famous of these post-Severan persecutions are those attributed to Maximinus the Thracian (r. 235-238). According to Eusebius, a persecution undertaken by Maximinus against heads of the church in 235 sent both Hippolytus and Pope Pontian into exile on Sardinia. Other evidence suggests the persecution of 235 was local to Cappadocia and Pontus, and not set in motion by the emperor.[51]:623

Punishments[edit]

Christians who refused to recant by performing ceremonies to honour the gods would meet with severe penalties; Roman citizens were exiled or condemned to a swift death by beheading. Slaves, foreign-born residents, and lower classes were liable to be put to death by wild beasts as a public spectacle.[55] A variety of animals were used for those condemned to die in this way. There is no evidence for Christians being executed at the Colosseum in Rome.[56]

Decius[edit]

Main article: Decian persecutionA libellus from the Decian persecution 250 AD

In 250 the emperor Decius issued an edict, the text of which has been lost, requiring everyone in the Empire (except Jews, who were exempted) to perform a sacrifice to the gods in the presence of a Roman magistrate and obtain a signed and witnessed certificate, called a libellus, to this effect.[9]:319 The decree was part of Decius’ drive to restore traditional Roman values and there is no evidence that Christians were specifically being targeted.[57] A number of these certificates still exist and one discovered in Egypt (text of papyrus in illustration) reads:[7]:145–151

To those in charge of the sacrifices of the village Theadelphia, from Aurelia Bellias, daughter of Peteres, and her daughter Kapinis. We have always been constant in sacrificing to the gods, and now too, in your presence, in accordance with the regulations, I have poured libations and sacrificed and tasted the offerings, and I ask you to certify this for us below. May you continue to prosper. (Second person’s handwriting) We, Aurelius Serenus and Aurelius Hermas, saw you sacrificing. (Third person’s handwriting) I, Hermas, certify. The first year of the Emperor Caesar Gaius Messias Quintus Traianus Decius Pius Felix Augustus, Pauni 27.

When the provincial governor Pliny had written to the emperor Trajan in 112, he said he required suspected Christians to curse Christ, but there is no mention of Christ or Christians in the certificates from Decius’ reign.[58]Nevertheless, this was the first time that Christians throughout the Empire had been forced by imperial edict to choose between their religion and their lives[7] and a number of prominent Christians, including Pope Fabian, Babylas of Antioch, and Alexander of Jerusalem died as a result of their refusal to perform the sacrifices.[9]:319 The number of Christians who were executed as a result of their refusal to obtain a certificate is not known, nor how much of an effort was made by the authorities to check who had received a certificate and who had not, but it is known that large numbers of Christians apostatized and performed the ceremonies while others, including Cyprian, bishop of Carthage, went into hiding.[7]Although the period of enforcement of the edict was only about eighteen months, it was severely traumatic to many Christian communities which had until then lived undisturbed, and left bitter memories of monstrous tyranny.[59]

In most churches, those who had lapsed were accepted into communion. Some African dioceses, however, refused to re-admit them. Indirectly, the Decian persecution led to the Donatist schism, because the Donatists refused to embrace those who had obtained the certificates.

Valerian[edit]

Martyrdom of Sixtus II under Valerian, 14c.

The emperor Valerian took the throne in 253 but from the following year he was away from Rome fighting the Persians who had conquered Antioch. He never returned as he was taken captive and died a prisoner. However he sent two letters regarding Christians to the Senate. The first, in 257, ordered all Christian clergy to perform sacrifices to the Roman gods and forbade Christians from holding meetings in cemeteries.[7]:151 A second letter the following year ordered that bishops and other high-ranking church officials were to be put to death, and that senators and equites who were Christians were to be stripped of their titles and lose their property. If they would not perform sacrifices to the gods they also were to be executed. Roman matrons who would not apostatize were to lose their property and be banished, while civil servants and members of the Emperor’s staff and household who refused to sacrifice would be reduced to slavery and sent to work on the Imperial estates.[40]:325 The fact that there were such high ranking Christians at the very heart of the Roman imperial establishment shows both that the actions taken by Decius less than a decade before had not had a lasting effect and that Christians did not face constant persecution or hide from public view.[40]:326

Among those executed under Valerian were Cyprian, Bishop of Carthage, and Sixtus II, Bishop of Rome with his deacons including Saint Lawrence. The public examination of Cyprian by the proconsul in Carthage, Galerius Maximus, on 14 September 258 has been preserved:[40]:327

Galerius Maximus: “Are you Thascius Cyprianus?” Cyprian: “I am.” Galerius: “The most sacred Emperors have commanded you to conform to the Roman rites.” Cyprian: “I refuse.” Galerius: “Take heed for yourself.” Cyprian: “Do as you are bid; in so clear a case I may not take heed.” Galerius, after briefly conferring with his judicial council, with much reluctance pronounced the following sentence: “You have long lived an irreligious life, and have drawn together a number of men bound by an unlawful association, and professed yourself an open enemy to the gods and the religion of Rome; and the pious, most sacred and august Emperors … have endeavoured in vain to bring you back to conformity with their religious observances; whereas therefore you have been apprehended as principal and ringleader in these infamous crimes, you shall be made an example to those whom you have wickedly associated with you; the authority of law shall be ratified in your blood.” He then read the sentence of the court from a written tablet: “It is the sentence of this court that Thascius Cyprianus be executed with the sword.” Cyprian: “Thanks be to God.”

Taken directly to the place of execution, Cyprian was decapitated. The words of the sentence show that in the eyes of the Roman state, Christianity was not a religion at all, and the church was a criminal organisation. When Valerian’s son Gallienus became Emperor in 260, the legislation was revoked, and this brief period of persecution came to an end; this period of relative toleration between his accession to the next mass persecution is known as the Little Peace of the Church.

A warrant to arrest a Christian, dated 28 February 256, was found among the Oxyrhynchus Papyri (P. Oxy 3035). The grounds for the arrest are not given in the document. Valerian’s first act as emperor on 22 October 253 was to make his son Gallienus his Caesar and colleague. Early in his reign, affairs in Europe went from bad to worse, and the whole West fell into disorder. In the East, Antioch had fallen into the hands of a Sassanid vassal and Armenia was occupied by Shapur I (Sapor). Valerian and Gallienus split the problems of the empire between them, with the son taking the West, and the father heading East to face the Persian threat.

Diocletian and Galerius[edit]

Statue of a martyr, Milan CathedralMain article: Diocletianic Persecution

Diocletian’s accession in 284 did not mark an immediate reversal of disregard to Christianity, but it did herald a gradual shift in official attitudes toward religious minorities. In the first fifteen years of his rule, Diocletian purged the army of Christians, condemned Manicheans to death, and surrounded himself with public opponents of Christianity. Diocletian’s preference for autocratic government, combined with his self-image as a restorer of past Roman glory, presaged the most pervasive persecution in Roman history. In the winter of 302, Galerius urged Diocletian to begin a general persecution of the Christians. Diocletian was wary, and asked the oracle of Apollo for guidance. The oracle’s reply was read as an endorsement of Galerius’s position, and a general persecution was called on 24 February 303.

Support for persecution within the Roman ruling class was not universal. Where Galerius and Diocletian were avid persecutors, Constantius was unenthusiastic. Later persecutory edicts, including the calls for all inhabitants to sacrifice to the Roman gods, were not applied in his domain. His son, Constantine, on taking the imperial office in 306, restored Christians to full legal equality and returned property that had been confiscated during the persecution. In Italy in 306, the usurper Maxentius ousted Maximian’s successor Severus, promising full religious toleration. Galerius ended the persecution in the East in 311, but it was resumed in EgyptPalestine, and Asia Minor by his successor, Maximinus. Constantine and Licinius, Severus’s successor, signed the “Edict of Milan” in 313, which offered a more comprehensive acceptance of Christianity than Galerius’s edict had provided. Licinius ousted Maximinus in 313, bringing an end to persecution in the East.

The persecution failed to check the rise of the church. By 324, Constantine was sole ruler of the empire, and Christianity had become his favored religion. Although the persecution resulted in death, torture, imprisonment, or dislocation for many Christians, the majority of the empire’s Christians avoided punishment. The persecution did, however, cause many churches to split between those who had complied with imperial authority (the lapsi) and those who had held firm. Certain schisms, like those of the Donatists in North Africa and the Melitians in Egypt, persisted long after the persecutions: only after 411 would the Donatists be reconciled to the church to which in 380 Emperor Theodosius I reserved the title of “catholic”. The cult of the martyrs in the centuries that followed the end of the persecutions gave rise to accounts that exaggerated the barbarity of that era. These accounts were criticized during the Enlightenment and after, most notably by Edward Gibbon. Modern historians like G. E. M. de Ste. Croix have attempted to determine whether Christian sources exaggerated the scope of the persecution by Diocletian.

Martyrdom[edit]

See also: Christian martyrs“Faithful Unto Death” by Herbert Schmalz

The earliest Christian martyrs, tortured and killed by Roman officials enforcing worship of the gods, won so much fame among their co-religionists that others wished to imitate them to such an extent that a group presented themselves to the governor of Asia, declaring themselves to be Christians, and calling on him to do his duty and put them to death. He executed a few, but as the rest demanded it as well, he responded, exasperated, “You wretches, if you want to die, you have cliffs to leap from and ropes to hang by.” This attitude was sufficiently widespread for Church authorities to begin to distinguish sharply “between solicited martyrdom and the more traditional kind that came as a result of persecution.”[60] At a Spanish council held at the turn of the 3rd and 4th centuries, the bishops denied the crown of martyrdom to those who died while attacking pagan temples. According to Ramsey MacMullen, the provocation was just “too blatant”. Drake cites this as evidence that Christians resorted to violence, including physical, at times.[61] Estimates for total martyred dead for the Great Persecution depend on the report of Eusebius of Caesarea in the Martyrs of Palestine. There are no other viable sources for the total number of martyrdoms in a province.[62][40]:535fAncient writers did not think statistically. When the size of a Christian population is described, whether by a pagan, Jewish, or Christian source, it is opinion or metaphor, not accurate reportage.[63]

During the Great Persecution, Eusebius was the bishop of Caesarea Maritima, the capital of Roman Palestine. Since, under Roman law, capital punishment could only be enforced by provincial governors, and because, most of the time, these governors would be in residence at the capital, most martyrdoms would take place within Eusebius’ jurisdiction. When they did not, as when the provincial governor traveled to other cities to perform assizes, their activities would be publicized throughout the province. Thus, if Eusebius were an assiduous reporter of the persecutions in his province, he could easily have acquired a full tally of all martyred dead.[64]

Edward Gibbon, after lamenting the vagueness of Eusebius’ phrasing, made the first estimate of number martyred as follows: by counting the total number of persons listed in the Martyrs, dividing it by the years covered by Eusebius’ text, multiplying it by the fraction of the Roman world the province of Palestine represents, and multiplying that figure by the total period of the persecution.[65] Subsequent estimates have followed the same basic methodology.[66]

Eusebius’ aims in the Martyrs of Palestine have been disputed. Geoffrey de Ste Croix, historian and author of a pair of seminal articles on the persecution of Christians in the Roman world, argued, after Gibbon, that Eusebius aimed at producing a full account of the martyrs in his province. Eusebius’ aims, Ste Croix argued, were clear from the text of the Martyrs: after describing Caesarea’s martyrdoms for 310, the last to have taken place in the city, Eusebius writes, “Such were the martyrdoms which took place at Cæsarea during the entire period of the persecution”; after describing the later mass executions at Phaeno, Eusebius writes, “These martyrdoms were accomplished in Palestine during eight complete years; and this was a description of the persecution in our time.”[67] Timothy Barnes, however, argues that Eusebius’ intent was not as broad as the text cited by Ste Croix implies: “Eusebius himself entitled the work ‘About those who suffered martyrdom in Palestine’ and his intention was to preserve the memories of the martyrs whom he knew, rather than to give a comprehensive account of how persecution affected the Roman province in which he lived.”[28]:154 The preface to the long recension of the Martyrs is cited:

It is meet, then, that the conflicts which were illustrious in various districts should be committed to writing by those who dwelt with the combatants in their districts. But for me, I pray that I may be able to speak of those with whom I was personally conversant, and that they may associate me with them – those in whom the whole people of Palestine glories, because even in the midst of our land the Saviour of all men arose like a thirst-quenching spring. The contests, then, of those illustrious champions I shall relate for the general instruction and profit.— Martyrs of Palestine (L) pr. 8, tr. Graeme Clark[68]

The text discloses unnamed companions of the martyrs and confessors who are the focus of Eusebius’ text; these men are not included in the tallies based on the Martyrs.[69]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ See Harold Remus in Blasi, Anthony J., Jean Duhamel and Paul-Andre’ Turcotte, eds. Handbook of Early Christianity (2002) 433 and 431-452 for an updated summary of scholarship on Roman persecution of Christianity. Also J. D. Crossan Who Killed Jesus (1995) 25 
  2. ^ Bibliowicz, Abel M. (2019). Jewish-Christian Relations – The First Centuries (Mascarat, 2019). WA: Mascarat. p. 42. ISBN 151361648X.
  3. ^ Wilken (203). The Christians as The Romans Saw Them. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press. p. 197-205. ISBN 0300098391.
  4. ^ Wilson, Stephen G. (1995). Related Strangers: Jews and Christians. Minneapolis, MIN: Augsburg Fortress Publishers. p. 28-9. ISBN 080063733X.
  5. ^ Zetterholm, Magnus (2003). The Formation of Christianity in Antioch: A Social- Scientific Approach to the Separation between Judaism and Christianity. Abingdon OX: Routledge. p. 223. ISBN 0415359597.
  6. Jump up to: a b “Persecution in the Early Church”. Religion Facts. Retrieved 2014-03-26.
  7. Jump up to: a b c d e f Moss 2013; pp. 217–233
  8. ^ Martin, D. 2010. “The “Afterlife” of the New Testament and Postmodern Interpretation Archived 2016-06-08 at the Wayback Machine (lecture transcript Archived 2016-08-12 at the Wayback Machine). Yale University.
  9. Jump up to: a b c W. H. C. Frend (1984). The Rise of Christianity. Fortress Press, Philadelphia. p. 319ISBN 978-0-8006-1931-2.
  10. ^ Harari, Yuval Noah (2014). “Chapter 12”. Sapiens: A Brief History of Humankind. United Kingdom: Harvil Secker. ISBN 978-0-7710-3852-5.
  11. Jump up to: a b c d e Cairns, Earle E. (1996). “Chapter 7:Christ or Caesar”. Christianity Through the Centuries: A History of the Christian Church (Third ed.). Grand Rapids, Michigan: Zondervan. ISBN 978-0-310-20812-9.
  12. Jump up to: a b Consummation of the Ages vol I, By Henry Epps, page 246
  13. ^ Casson, Lionel (1998). “Chapter 7 ‘Christ or Caesar'”. Everyday Life in Ancient Rome (revised ed.). Baltimore, Maryland: Johns Hopkins University Press. ISBN 0-8018-5991-3.
  14. ^ Lee, A.Doug (2016). Pagans and Christians in Late Antiquity: A Sourcebook (Second ed.). New York: Routledge. ISBN 978-1-138-02031-3.
  15. Jump up to: a b Catherwood, Christopher (2011). “Chapter Three, From Christ to Christendom: The Early Church”. A Brief History of the Middle East (Second ed.). London: Constable and Robin Ltd. ISBN 978-1-84901-508-0.
  16. ^ A Short History of the Early Church, By Harry R. Boer page 45
  17. ^ Whitby, Michael; Streeter, Joseph, eds. (2006). Christian Persecution, Martyrdom, and Orthodoxy GEM de Ste.Croix. New York: Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0-19-927812-1.
  18. Jump up to: a b c d McDonald, Margaret Y. (1996). Early Christian Women and Pagan Opinion: The Power of the Hysterical Woman. Cambridge, England: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0-521-56174-4.
  19. ^ Keener, Craig S. (2005). 1-2 Corinthians. New York: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-0-511-11387-1.
  20. ^ Sherwin-White, A.N. “Why Were the Early Christians Persecuted? — An Amendment.” Past & Present. Vol. 47 No. 2 (April 1954): 23.
  21. Jump up to: a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p de Ste Croix 2006
  22. ^ Edward Gibbon, The History of the Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire (Wordsworth Editions 1998 ISBN 978-1-85326499-3), p. 309
  23. ^ Decline & Fall p. 311; Martin Goodman notes that some Christians, following the line taken by the Book of Revelation condemned Rome as evil, the “Whore of Babylon”, revelling in its impending downfall. Rome & Jerusalem, p. 531, ISBN 978-0-14-029127-8
  24. ^ Kenneth Scott Latourette, A History of Christianity, p. 82Archived June 28, 2014, at the Wayback Machine
  25. ^ “As the existence of the Christians became more widely known, it became increasingly clear that they were (a) antisocial, in that they did not participate in the normal social life of their communities; (b) sacrilegious, in that they refused to worship the gods; and (c) dangerous, in that the gods did not take kindly to communities that harbored those who failed to offer them cult.Bart D. Ehrman, A Brief Introduction to the New Testament (Oxford University Press 2004 ISBN 978-0-19-536934-2), pp. 313–314
  26. ^ Bart D. Ehrman, A Brief Introduction to the New Testament (Oxford University Press 2004 ISBN 978-0-19-536934-2), pp. 313–314
  27. ^ Pliny the Younger. Epistulae 10.96-97 at www.earlychristianwritings.com/pliny.html on June 6, 2012.
  28. Jump up to: a b c d e f g h i j k l m n Barnes 1968.
  29. ^ De Ste Croix, G.E.M. “Aspects of the ‘Great’ Persecution.” Harvard Theological Review. Vol. 47. No. 2. (April 1964): 75-78.
  30. ^ De Ste Croix, “Aspects of the ‘Great’ Persecution,” 103.
  31. ^ Barnes, “The Piety of a Persecutor.”
  32. ^ H.H. Ben-Sasson, A History of the Jewish People, Harvard University Press, 1976, ISBN 0-674-39731-2The Crisis Under Gaius Caligula, pages 254–256: “The reign of Gaius Caligula (37-41) witnessed the first open break between the Jews and the Julio-Claudian empire. Until then – if one accepts Sejanus‘ heyday and the trouble caused by the census after Archelaus’ banishment – there was usually an atmosphere of understanding between the Jews and the empire … These relations deteriorated seriously during Caligula’s reign, and, though after his death the peace was outwardly re-established, considerable bitterness remained on both sides. … Caligula ordered that a golden statue of himself be set up in the Temple in Jerusalem. … Only Caligula’s death, at the hands of Roman conspirators (41), prevented the outbreak of a Jewish-Roman war that might well have spread to the entire East.”
  33. ^ Wylen, Stephen M., The Jews in the Time of Jesus: An Introduction, Paulist Press (1995), ISBN 0-8091-3610-4, Pp 190–192.; Dunn, James D.G., Jews and Christians: The Parting of the Ways, CE 70 to 135, Wm. B. Eerdmans Publishing (1999), ISBN 0-8028-4498-7, Pp 33–34.; Boatwright, Mary Taliaferro & Gargola, Daniel J & Talbert, Richard John Alexander, The Romans: From Village to Empire, Oxford University Press (2004), ISBN 0-19-511875-8, p. 426.;
  34. ^ Robert L. Wilkin, ibid., p. 19.
  35. ^ Janssen, L.F. “‘Superstitio’ and the Persecution of the Christians.” Vigilae Christianae. Vol. 33 No. 2 (June 1979): 138.
  36. ^ Janssen, “‘Superstitio’ and the Persecution of the Christians,” 135-136.
  37. ^ “The World of Late Antiquity”, Peter Brown, p. 17, Thames and Hudson, 1971, ISBN 0-500-32022-5
  38. ^ EusebiusEcclesiastical History 5.1.7.
  39. ^ Tertullian’s readership was more likely to have been Christians, whose faith was reinforced by Tertullian’s defenses of faith against rationalizations.
  40. Jump up to: a b c d e f Frend 1965
  41. ^ Timothy D. Barnes, Chapter 11 (“Persecution”) in Tertullian (1971, revised 1985). p. 145.
  42. ^ In the earliest extant manuscript, the second Medicean, the e in “Chrestianos”, Chrestians, has been changed into an i; cf. Gerd Theißen, Annette Merz, Der historische Jesus: ein Lehrbuch, 2001, p. 89. The reading Christianos, Christians, is therefore doubtful.
  43. ^ Shaw, Brent (2015-08-14). “The Myth of the Neronian Persecution”. The Journal of Roman Studies105: 73–100. doi:10.1017/S0075435815000982.
  44. Jump up to: a b Carrier, Richard (2014-07-02). “The prospect of a Christian interpolation in Tacitus, Annals 15.44”Vigiliae Christianae68 (3): 264–283. doi:10.1163/15700720-12341171.
  45. ^ Smallwood, E.M. Classical Philology 51, 1956.
  46. Jump up to: a b Brown, Raymond E. An Introduction to the New Testament, pp. 805–809. ISBN 0-385-24767-2.
  47. ^ Thompson, Leonard L. Reading the Book of Revelation. “Ordinary Lives” pg. 29–30
  48. ^ Merrill, E.T. Essays in Early Christian History(London:Macmillan, 1924).
  49. ^ Willborn, L.L. Biblical Research 29 (1984).
  50. ^ Thompson, L.L. The Book of Revelation: Apocalypse and Empire (New York: Oxford, 1990).
  51. Jump up to: a b c Cambridge Ancient History Vol. 12.
  52. ^ McLynn, Frank (2009). Marcus Aurelius: A Life. Da Capo Press. p. 295ISBN 978-0-306-81830-1.
  53. ^ The Oxford Dictionary of the Saints, “Martyrs of Lyons”
  54. Jump up to: a b c Tabbernee, William (2007). Fake Prophecy and Polluted Sacraments: Ecclesiastical and Imperial Reactions to Montanism (Supplements to Vigiliae Christianae). Brill. ISBN 978-9004158191.
  55. ^ Bomgardner, D.L. (October 10, 2002). The Story of the Roman Amphitheatre. Routledge. pp. 141–143. ISBN 978-0-415-30185-5.
  56. ^ Hopkins, Keith (2011). The Colosseum. Profile Books. p. 103. ISBN 978-1-84668-470-8.
  57. ^ Philip F. Esler, ed. (2000). The Early Christian World, Vol.2Routledge. pp. 827–829. ISBN 978-0-415-16497-9.
  58. ^ “Pliny’s letter to Trajan, translated”.
  59. ^ Chris Scarre (1995). Chronicle of the Roman Emperors: the reign-by-reign record of the rulers of Imperial Rome. Thames & Hudson. p. 170ISBN 0-500-05077-5.
  60. ^ G.W. Bowersock, Martyrdom and Rome Archived2016-01-20 at the Wayback Machine (Cambridge University Press 2002 ISBN 978-0-521-53049-1), pp. 1–4; Eusebius describes three men in Caeserea who watched other Christians “winning the crown of martyrdom” and provoked the governor to attain the same end, he records a further six men in the same area demanding to be killed in the arena. Fox, 1987, p. 442–443
  61. ^ Constantine and the Bishops: The Politics of Intolerance”, H. A. Drake, Johns Hopkins University Press, 2002, ISBN 0-8018-7104-2, p. 403; “Christianity & Paganism in the Fourth to Eighth Centuries”, Ramsay MacMullen, 1997, Yale University Press, ISBN 0-300-07148-5 p.15
  62. ^ Geoffrey de Ste Croix, “Aspects of the ‘Great’ Persecution”, Harvard Theological Review 47:2 (1954), 100–1
  63. ^ Keith Hopkins, “Christian Number and Its Implications”, Journal of Early Christian Studies 6:2 (1998), 186–87.
  64. ^ Ste Croix, 101
  65. ^ Edward GibbonThe History of the Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire, ed. David Womersley (London: Allen Lane, 1994), 1.578.
  66. ^ T. D. Barnes, Constantine and Eusebius (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1981), 154, 357 n. 55.
  67. ^ Eusebius, Martyrs of Palestine (S) 11.31, 13.11, tr. A. C. McGiffert, cited by Ste Croix, 101.
  68. ^ Graeme Clark, “Third-Century Christianity”, in the Cambridge Ancient History 2nd ed., volume 12: The Crisis of Empire, A.D. 193–337, ed. Alan K. Bowman, Peter Garnsey, and Averil Cameron (New York: Cambridge University Press, 2005), 658–69.
  69. ^ Clarke, 659.

Sources[edit]

  • Barnes, T.D. (1968). “Legislation Against the Christians.” Journal of Roman Studies. Vol. 58.
  • Moss, Candida (2013). The Myth of Persecution: How Early Christians Invented a Story of Martyrdom. HarperCollins. ISBN 978-0-06-210452-6.
  • Frend, W.H.C. (1965). Martyrdom and Persecution in the Early Church: A Study of a Conflict from the Maccabees to Donatus. Cambridge: James Clarke & Co.
  • Fox, Robin Lane (1986). Pagans and Christians. Viking. ISBN 0-670-80848-2.
  • de Ste. Croix, G.E.M. (2006). “Why Were The Early Christians Persecuted?”. A Journal of Historical Studies, 1963: 6–38. Page references in this article relate to a reprint of this essay in Whitby, Michael, ed. (2006). Christian Persecution, Martyrdom, And Orthodoxy. Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-927812-1.

Historiography[edit]

External links[edit

  • More of the characteristics of Rome

The culture of ancient Rome can be described as covering a 1,000 year period, and developed from a small agricultural community defined by narrow ethnicity to a multilingual and multicultural empire covering an area now occupied by 13 modern nations.

According to the above, Rome came from  a very small beginning, out of the earth as the bible described her

It was Emperor Justinian that elevated the Pope or the Papacy to be the head of all churches

More of the characteristics of the Roman Empire?

The Roman Empire emerged after the assassination of Caesar in 44 BC. After Caesar’s, death, there were years of civil war. Finally, in 27 BC, Augustus became Caesar’s successor and the emperor of Rome.

Augustus (63 BC–14 AD) enjoyed a long and prosperous reign. His rule marked the beginning of the Pax Romana—two hundred years of peace. He was a capable organizer and reformer, but his power was absolute. He suffered only one setback as emperor: the Germans wiped out a Roman force at Teutoburg Forest in 9 AD.

One characteristic of the Roman Empire was its vastness. It stretched from Scotland to the Arabian desert and from Morocco to the Black Sea. The Mediterranean Sea was a de facto Roman lake. Roman territory was so extensive that Augustus decided not to enlarge it any further.

The huge empire was held together by a first-rate system of roads. A postal service was run by the military. Industry and commerce thrived, and goods were efficiently carried by ship. Literature and art—usually inspired by Greece—flourished.

After the Pax Romana, the empire began to decline. The rise of Christianity vexed Rome. Some of the subsequent Roman emperors, such as Commodus, were unusually cruel and inept. Barbarian tribes pressed against the Roman frontiers.

Rome finally collapsed in 476.

11 And I beheld another beast coming up out of the earth; and he had two horns like a lamb, and he spake as a dragon.

12 And he exerciseth all the power of the first beast before him, and causeth the earth and them which dwell therein to worship the first beast, whose deadly wound was healed.

13 And he doeth great wonders, so that he maketh fire come down from heaven on the earth in the sight of men,

14 And deceiveth them that dwell on the earth by the means of those miracles which he had power to do in the sight of the beast; saying to them that dwell on the earth, that they should make an image to the beast, which had the wound by a sword, and did live.

15 And he had power to give life unto the image of the beast, that the image of the beast should both speak, and cause that as many as would not worship the image of the beast should be killed.

16 And he causeth all, both small and great, rich and poor, free and bond, to receive a mark in their right hand, or in their foreheads:

17 And that no man might buy or sell, save he that had the mark, or the name of the beast, or the number of his name.

Rome was from  the earth, that is is from inside  the country of Italy. That is why is called the Capital of Italy geographically up till now

According to Daniel chapter 2:41-43

Rome was built on seven hills or mountains counterfeit of Jerusalem that was built on seven hills

The seven hill of Jerusalem

  1. Mount Scopus
  2. Mount Olivet
  3. Mount of corruption
  4. Mount ophel
  5. Mount Zion
  6. the middle summit hill or nob hill two
  7. to the north of that rock “fort Antônia” was built

Rome is the City of Seven Hills: A counterfeit of Jerusalem of God

  1. Aventine,

 2. Caelian,

3.  Capitoline,

4.  Esquiline, 

5. Palatine, 

6. Quirinal, 

 7. Vimina. 

Jerusalem stood on seven hills

How many hills are in Jerusalem?seven hillsJerusalem, Israel: Jerusalem’s seven hills are Mount Scopus, Mount Olivet and the Mount of Corruption (all three are peaks in a mountain ridge that lies east of the Old City), Mount Ophel, the original Mount Zion, the New Mount Zion and the hill on which the Antonia Fortress was built.

Rome gave power to the beast the Papacy when Justin’s elevated the Pope to the position of head of  all the churches in 538 AD

Rome suffered a deadly wound when Roman Empire was destroyed AD 476

The two legs of the image with head of gold in Daniel 2 are the division of Roman Empire, Wester Empire and Easter Empire. Both these Empires were defeated but not completely destroyed. This the wound that Rome received. Even though there is now the revival of this Empires now known as EUROPE who have not yet got her full power to rule.Yet as time unfolds, this revival will happen.

The ten toes that the Lord Jesus Christ destroyed of the image of Daniel are the Roman Empire which weakened the power of the Empire to like ur man mixed with clay. I am not giving a vivid description of the Roman Empire but to let the readers know some of the characteristics of Rome as the false prophet as revealed to me by God. Roman Emperors also persecuted Christians. 

The Italian painter Giotto di Bondone (1267–1377) perhaps said it best when he described Rome as “the city of echoes, the city of illusions, and the city of yearning.”

First we have to let the bible interpret itself 

The symbols that Daniel saw

  1. The sea which symbolises multitude of people 
  2. Revelation 18:12-13 12 And the ten horns which thou sawest are ten kings, which have received no kingdom as yet; but receive power as kings one hour with the beast.

13 These have one mind, and shall give their power and strength unto the beast, and of the beast that carrieth her, which hath the seven heads and ten horns.

8 The beast that thou sawest was, and is not; and shall ascend out of the bottomless pit, and go into perdition: and they that dwell on the earth shall wonder, whose names were not written in the book of life from the foundation of the world, when they behold the beast that was, and is not, and yet is.

9 And here is the mind which hath wisdom. The seven heads are seven mountains, on which the woman sitteth.

10 And there are seven kings: five are fallen, and one is, and the other is not yet come; and when he cometh, he must continue a short space.

11 And the beast that was, and is not, even he is the eighth, and is of the seven, and goeth into perdition.

12 And the ten horns which thou sawest are ten kings, which have received no kingdom as yet; but receive power as kings one hour with the beast.

13 These have one mind, and shall give their power and strength unto the beast.

41 And whereas thou sawest the feet and toes, part of potters’ clay, and part of iron, the kingdom shall be divided; but there shall be in it of the strength of the iron, forasmuch as thou sawest the iron mixed with miry clay.

42 And as the toes of the feet were part of iron, and part of clay, so the kingdom shall be partly strong, and partly broken.

43 And whereas thou sawest iron mixed with miry clay, they shall mingle themselves with the seed of men: but they shall not cleave one to another, even as iron is not mixed with clay.

 In the these three verses, it tell us how Rome was more fierce in character, had iron teeth, and sting destructive nails, more wicked than her fellow world rulers, Babylon, Medo-Persia and Greece or Grecia. 

Rome, from the smallest town became and Empire with ten divisions known as the Roman Empire up till this present time even though they were crushed or defeated but not totally killed, by another world ruler called the European Union which represent the revived Roman Empire

KINGDOMS OF NEBUCHADNEZZAR’S IMAGE

We all know the great story of Nebuchadnezzar’s dream in which he saw a great image of a man, made out of Nebuchadnezzars Imagedifferent metals. And most of us know who those kingdoms are, because in Daniel 2:38 God revealed that Nebuchadnezzar, representing Babylon, was that head of gold. And after the head of gold we are shown that other ruling kingdoms arise to power after Babylon. The chest and arms of silver. The thighs of bronze and the legs of iron.

Now we only need to check the historical records to see who these kingdoms were. The chest of silver represents Medo-Persia. The thighs of bronze represents Greece. And the legs of iron represents Rome. But what about the feet of iron and clay? Most people just accept that this is divided Europe. But is there more to it than that? Can we find a more specific truth to the feet of Iron and Clay if we dig a little deeper? Yes we can!

Daniel 2:41-43 …’And whereas thou sawest the feet and toes, part of potters’ clay, and part of iron, the kingdom shall be divided; but there shall be in it of the strength of the iron, forasmuch as thou sawest the iron mixed with miry clay. And as the toes of the feet were part of iron, and part of clay, so the kingdom shall be partly strong, and partly broken?. And whereas thou sawest iron mixed with miry clay, they shall mingle themselves with the seed of men: but they shall not cleave one to another, even as iron is not mixed with clay.’

First of all, let us look at the Biblical meaning of iron and clay. What does iron denote in the Bible? Well, if you look at Psalm 2:9 and Revelation 2:27, you will see that iron is a symbol of a ruling power. So in terms of the world, iron would denote a civil ruling world power. And what about the clay? If you read Isaiah 64:8 and Jeremiah 18:1-6, you will see that clay in the Bible denotes the people of God, with the Lord Himself being the Potter.

IRON = World Ruling Power              CLAY = The Professed Church

Revelation 17:12-13 …’And the ten horns which thou sawest are ten kings, which have received no kingdom as yet; but receive power as kings one hour with the beast. These have one mind, and shall give their power and strength unto the beast.’

The ten toes correspond with the ten horns on the beast of Revelation 17. The beast is the Papal Church of Rome and the ten horns are the “kings” (kingdoms) which give their power to the Papacy in the last days. This is what God is showing us through the feet and toes on the image in Daniel 2 and the horns on the beast in Revelation 13 & 17. There will be a confederacy of ruling civil powers in the last days with the strength of iron, who will give their power to the Roman Catholic beast , which is symbolized by the mixing of iron and “dirty” clay.

Catholicism is that corrupt, apostate religion with which the kings of the earth have united with in the past Vaticanto form an abominable alliance. And in the last days we will also see Protestant churches that have become apostate unite with Roman Catholic Church and other religions in this global confederacy with the civil powers. A cry of unity is being spread all around the world today and that cry will get louder and louder until the Papal Church receives it’s full power from the “kings of the earth”. Then we will see the enforcement of the mark of the beast which is the Sunday worship.

Jesus said that His kingdom is NOT OF THIS WORLD (John 18:36). Therefore we are NOT to unite with the civil powers or any other kingdom of this world. God’s true servants are to remain separate.

The Roman empire was the last world civil power to rule the world. Babylon, Medo-Persia, Greece and Rome were all world ruling empires. But God revealed in the feet of Nebuchadnezzar’s image that there would never be another single civil power ruling the world. The feet shows us that from the division of Rome the world would remain partly broken until the second coming. But what we will see, as Revelation 17 points out is the kings of the earth giving their civil power to a church, which will usher in another “dark ages” where “religious” laws (mark of the beast) will be enforced under penalty of death.

The good news is that this allegiance will only last a short time as Revelation 17 reveals. And there is only ONE KINGDOM that will last and that is the Kingdom of God, represented by the rock that comes down from heaven to smash all the worldly kingdoms to pieces. Then the saints will reign and live forever with our Lord Jesus Christ. Are you ready to enter that kingdom? Galatians 3:29 says …’If ye be Christ’s, then are ye Abraham’s seed, and heirs according to the promise.’ Do you have a daily relationship with Christ Jesus, the coming King? Do you love His character? Are you walking in His footsteps and by His grace obeying His teachings and commandments? If not, then you need to take heed of the warning Jesus gave in Luke 19:27 …’But those Mine enemies, which would not that I should reign over them, bring hither, and slay them before Me.’

🙏🙏🙏🙏🙏

Reminder of who Rome was

Was built on 7 hills ( mountains

Rome is the City of Seven Hills: Aventine, Caelian, Capitoline, Esquiline, Palatine, Quirinal, and Vimina. The Italian painter Giotto di Bondone (1267–1377) perhaps said it best when he described Rome as “the city of echoes, the city of illusions, and the city of yearning.”

This ten division of the Roman Empire represents the ten toes of the fourth beast of Daniel 2:40-43

41 And whereas thou sawest the feet and toes, part of potters’ clay, and part of iron, the kingdom shall be divided; but there shall be in it of the strength of the iron, forasmuch as thou sawest the iron mixed with miry clay.

42 And as the toes of the feet were part of iron, and part of clay, so the kingdom shall be partly strong, and partly broken.

43 And whereas thou sawest iron mixed with miry clay, they shall mingle themselves with the seed of men: but they shall not cleave one to another, even as iron is not mixed with clay.

Rome started from a very small Town inside Italy like lamb ( gentle) the bible makes us to that lamb are very gentle animal but ram has horns but verygenuel. When you see a ram it look genuinely gentle. The book of Daniel chapter 8:3-7

The two horns of the beast ( the bible tell us that horns means power ) These two horns on this beats are the two Empires that that Rome was divided into

The complete Roman Empire consist of 

  1. Alemanni now known as Germany
  2. Franks now known as France
  3. Burgundians now known as Switzerland 
  4. Suevi now known as Portugal
  5. Anglo- Saxons now known as England
  6. Visigoths now known as Spain
  7. Lombards now known as Italy
  8. Heruli destroyed by the Papacy 
  9. Vandals  “.              “.           “
  10. Ostrogoths  “.        “.          “

 The beast has strong iron teeth Daniel 2:40. This represented the strong ruthless Monarchy of Rome which over threw the Grecian Empire at the battle of Pydna in about 168 BC

This great fourth beast described in Daniel 7:7 which represents Rome without any doubt, is dreadful and strong. It had great iron teeth. This beast had ten horns representing as did the ten toes of the image in Daniel 2, the ten divisions of Western Rome namely 

Alemanni which is now Germny

Ostrogoths was uprooted by the Papacy in about A.D. 538

Visigoths destroyed by the Papacy 

Franks which is now France

Vandals was uprooted by the Papacy in about 534

Suevi now known as Portugal 

Burgundians now known as Swiszaland

Heruli destroyed by the Papacy 

Anglo- Saxon now known as England

Lombards now known as Italy

The Papacy succeeded in uprooting the Heruli,  in about AD493

By now you are understanding why God revealed to me that Rome is the false prophet 

 Every nation that Rome conquered was under their rule and authorities. The nation was used and taxed heavily. Rome made them to abandon their beliefs, cultures and anything that will remind them of their original status. 

Roman Empire was divided into two

1 Eastern Empire 

2. Western Empire

The legs and feet of iron signified the Roman empire. The Roman empire branched into ten kingdoms, as the toes of these feet. Some were weak as clay, others strong as iron. Endeavours have often been used to unite them, for strengthening the empire, but in vain.

Constantine the Great, Roman emperor from 306-337 C.E.

Constantine the Great, 306-337 C.E., divided the Roman Empire in two and made Christianity the dominant religion in the region.

The invading army reached the outskirts of Rome, which had been left totally undefended. In 410 C.E., the Visigoths, led by Alaric, breached the walls of Rome and sacked the capital of the Roman Empire.

A brief truth about the fall of the Roman Empire 

The Visigoths looted, burned, and pillaged their way through the city, leaving a wake of destruction wherever they went. The plundering continued for three days. For the first time in nearly a millennium, the city of Rome was in the hands of someone other than the Romans. This was the first time that the city of Rome was sacked, but by no means the last.

I don’t want to go the details of the fall of Rome here but just make every reader know that Rome was the false prophet as God showed me

The shot story of Rome

Rome.info » Ancient Rome » History of Rome

History of Rome

According to legend, Rome was founded in 753 BC by twin sons Romulus and Remus who were raised by a she-wolf.

During its twelve-century history, the Roman civilization shifted from a monarchy to an oligarchic republic to a immense empire.

Since then it has been continously inhabited, and, as headquaters first of the Roman Empire and then of the Roman Catholic Church, it has had an immense impact on the world.

Ancient Rome history in brief

Roman Republic History:

The early period (ca. 500 BC-300 BC)

The Punic Wars (ca. 275 BC-146 BC)

The Civil Wars (ca. 146 BC-30 BC)

Roman Empire History:

The Julio-Claudians (30 BC-68 AD)

The Flavians (69 AD-96 AD)

The Five Good Emperors (96 AD-161 AD)

The Severans (161 AD-235 AD)

The Third Century Crisis

Constantine and his family (312 AD-363 AD)

The Theodosians (363 AD-450 AD)

The Fall of Roman Empire (476 AD)

After the fall of Rome:

The Ostrogoths

The Visigoths

The Franks

The Vandals

The Byzantines

The Lombards, the Pope.

Roman Empire

The Roman Empire was a phase of the ancient Roman civilization with the typical autocratic form of government. The earlier Roman Republic had been weakened and destroyed by the conflict between Sulla and Gaius Marius, which was followed by the civil war against Pompey lead by Gaius Julius Caesar. During all these fights hundreds of senators had fallen in battle, subsequently been executed, murdered, or had commited a suicide. The Roman Senate had been refilled by devoted friends of the First Triumvirate, and later on, by followers of the Second Triumvirate. At last, Octavian (later renamed as Augustus) defeated his opponent Mark Antony and completed this gradual destruction by completely reorganizing the Roman Republic into the Roman Empire.

“Roman Empire” can also be known as “Imperium Romanum”, probably the best-known Latin expression where the word imperium simply means “territory”; the Roman Empire represents that part of the world under Roman rule. 

The expansion of this Roman territory beyond the borders of the initial city-state of Rome had started long before the state organization turned into an Empire. In its territorial peak after the conquest of Dacia by Trajan, the Roman Empire controlled approximately 5 900 000 km2 (2,300,000 sq.mi.) of land surface, thereby being one of the largest empires during classical antiquity.

Fall of the Roman Empire

There were several reasons for the decline of Roman Empire. They are all interweaved with each other. Decline in morals and values, public health problems, political corruption, unemployment, inflation, urban decay, inferior technology, military spending. All these facts had contributed to the fall of one of the greatest ancient civilisations – Ancient Rome.

Roman Empire divided up according to an emperor:

– Julio-Claudians (30 BC-68 AD)

– Flavians (69 AD-96 AD)

– The Five Good Emperors (96 AD-161 AD)

– Severans (161 AD-235 AD)

– The Third Century Crisis

– Constantine and his family (312 AD-363 AD)

– Theodosians (363 AD-450 AD)

– Fall of the Roman Empire (476 AD)

  False prophets 

Bible Verses About False Prophets

Bible verses related to False Prophets from the King James Version (KJV) by Relevance – Sort By Book Order

1 John 4:1-6 – Beloved, believe not every spirit, but try the spirits whether they are of God: because many false prophets are gone out into the world.   (Read More…)

1 John 4:1 – Beloved, believe not every spirit, but try the spirits whether they are of God: because many false prophets are gone out into the world.

Matthew 7:15 – Beware of false prophets, which come to you in sheep’s clothing, but inwardly they are ravening wolves.

2 Peter 2:1 – But there were false prophets also among the people, even as there shall be false teachers among you, who privily shall bring in damnable heresies, even denying the Lord that bought them, and bring upon themselves swift destruction.

Matthew 24:24 – For there shall arise false Christs, and false prophets, and shall shew great signs and wonders; insomuch that, if [it were] possible, they shall deceive the very elect.

Romans 16:18 – For they that are such serve not our Lord Jesus Christ, but their own belly; and by good words and fair speeches deceive the hearts of the simple.

Mark 7:6-9 – He answered and said unto them, Well hath Esaias prophesied of you hypocrites, as it is written, This people honoureth me with [their] lips, but their heart is far from me.   (Read More…)

Deuteronomy 18:20 – But the prophet, which shall presume to speak a word in my name, which I have not commanded him to speak, or that shall speak in the name of other gods, even that prophet shall die.

Deuteronomy 18:20-22 – But the prophet, which shall presume to speak a word in my name, which I have not commanded him to speak, or that shall speak in the name of other gods, even that prophet shall die.   (Read More…)

2 Corinthians 11:13-15 – For such [are] false apostles, deceitful workers, transforming themselves into the apostles of Christ.   (Read More…)

Matthew 7:21 – Not every one that saith unto me, Lord, Lord, shall enter into the kingdom of heaven; but he that doeth the will of my Father which is in heaven.

2 Timothy 4:3 – For the time will come when they will not endure sound doctrine; but after their own lusts shall they heap to themselves teachers, having itching ears;

Revelation 20:10 – And the devil that deceived them was cast into the lake of fire and brimstone, where the beast and the false prophet [are], and shall be tormented day and night for ever and ever.

1 Corinthians 14:33 – For God is not [the author] of confusion, but of peace, as in all churches of the saints.

Topics and verses are auto-generated from user searches. If a verse or topic does not belong, please contact us. Some scripture references/categories courtesy of Open Bible .info under CC BY 3.0

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Christs False    Schools of the Prophets    

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UPDATED:AUG 21, 2019ORIGINAL:OCT 14, 2009

Ancient Rome

HISTORY.COM EDITORS

CONTENTS

Origins of Rome

The Early Republic

Military Expansion

Internal Struggles in the Late Republic

Julius Caesar’s Rise

From Caesar to Augustus

Age of the Roman Emperors

Decline and Disintegration

Roman Architecture

PHOTO GALLERIES

Beginning in the eighth century B.C., Ancient Rome grew from a small town on central Italy’s Tiber River into an empire that at its peak encompassed most of continental Europe, Britain, much of western Asia, northern Africa and the Mediterranean islands. Among the many legacies of Roman dominance are the widespread use of the Romance languages (Italian, French, Spanish, Portuguese and Romanian) derived from Latin, the modern Western alphabet and calendar and the emergence of Christianity as a major world religion. After 450 years as a republic, Rome became an empire in the wake of Julius Caesar’s rise and fall in the first century B.C. The long and triumphant reign of its first emperor, Augustus, began a golden age of peace and prosperity; by contrast, the Roman Empire’s decline and fall by the fifth century A.D. was one of the most dramatic implosions in the history of human civilization.

Origins of Rome

As legend has it, Rome was founded in 753 B.C. by Romulus and Remus, twin sons of Mars, the god of war. Left to drown in a basket on the Tiber by a king of nearby Alba Longa and rescued by a she-wolf, the twins lived to defeat that king and found their own city on the river’s banks in 753 B.C. After killing his brother, Romulus became the first king of Rome, which is named for him. A line of Sabine, Latin and Etruscan (earlier Italian civilizations) kings followed in a non-hereditary succession. There are seven legendary kings of Rome: Romulus, Numa Pompilius, Tullus Hostilius, Ancus Martius, Lucius Tarquinius Priscus (Tarquin the Elder), Servius Tullius and Tarquinius Superbus, or Tarquin the Proud (534-510 B.C.). While they were referred to as “Rex,” or “King” in Latin, all the kings after Romulus were elected by the senate. 

Did you know? Four decades after Constantine made Christianity Rome’s official religion, Emperor Julian—known as the Apostate—tried to revive the pagan cults and temples of the past, but the process was reversed after his death, and Julian was the last pagan emperor of Rome.

Rome’s era as a monarchy ended in 509 B.C. with the overthrow of its seventh king, Lucius Tarquinius Superbus, whom ancient historians portrayed as cruel and tyrannical, compared to his benevolent predecessors. A popular uprising was said to have arisen over the rape of a virtuous noblewoman, Lucretia, by the king’s son. Whatever the cause, Rome turned from a monarchy into a republic, a world derived from res publica, or “property of the people.”

Rome was built on seven hills, known as “the seven hills of Rome”—Esquiline Hill, Palatine Hill, Aventine Hill, Capitoline Hill, Quirinal Hill, Viminal Hill and Caelian Hill. 

The Early Republic

The power of the monarch passed to two annually elected magistrates called consuls. They also served as commanders in chief of the army. The magistrates, though elected by the people, were drawn largely from the Senate, which was dominated by the patricians, or the descendants of the original senators from the time of Romulus. Politics in the early republic was marked by the long struggle between patricians and plebeians (the common people), who eventually attained some political power through years of concessions from patricians, including their own political bodies, the tribunes, which could initiate or veto legislation.

The Roman forum was more than just home to their Senate.

The Roman forum was more than just home to their Senate.

In 450 B.C., the first Roman law code was inscribed on 12 bronze tablets–known as the Twelve Tables–and publicly displayed in the Roman Forum. These laws included issues of legal procedure, civil rights and property rights and provided the basis for all future Roman civil law. By around 300 B.C., real political power in Rome was centered in the Senate, which at the time included only members of patrician and wealthy plebeian families.

Military Expansion

During the early republic, the Roman state grew exponentially in both size and power. Though the Gauls sacked and burned Rome in 390 B.C., the Romans rebounded under the leadership of the military hero Camillus, eventually gaining control of the entire Italian peninsula by 264 B.C. Rome then fought a series of wars known as the Punic Wars with Carthage, a powerful city-state in northern Africa. The first two Punic Wars ended with Rome in full control of Sicily, the western Mediterranean and much of Spain. In the Third Punic War (149–146 B.C.), the Romans captured and destroyed the city of Carthage and sold its surviving inhabitants into slavery, making a section of northern Africa a Roman province. At the same time, Rome also spread its influence east, defeating King Philip V of Macedonia in the Macedonian Wars and turning his kingdom into another Roman province.

Rome’s military conquests led directly to its cultural growth as a society, as the Romans benefited greatly from contact with such advanced cultures as the Greeks. The first Roman literature appeared around 240 B.C., with translations of Greek classics into Latin; Romans would eventually adopt much of Greek art, philosophy and religion.

Internal Struggles in the Late Republic

Rome’s complex political institutions began to crumble under the weight of the growing empire, ushering in an era of internal turmoil and violence. The gap between rich and poor widened as wealthy landowners drove small farmers from public land, while access to government was increasingly limited to the more privileged classes. Attempts to address these social problems, such as the reform movements of Tiberius and Gaius Gracchus (in 133 B.C. and 123-22 B.C., respectively) ended in the reformers’ deaths at the hands of their opponents.

Gaius Marius, a commoner whose military prowess elevated him to the position of consul (for the first of six terms) in 107 B.C., was the first of a series of warlords who would dominate Rome during the late republic. By 91 B.C., Marius was struggling against attacks by his opponents, including his fellow general Sulla, who emerged as military dictator around 82 B.C. After Sulla retired, one of his former supporters, Pompey, briefly served as consul before waging successful military campaigns against pirates in the Mediterranean and the forces of Mithridates in Asia. During this same period, Marcus Tullius Cicero, elected consul in 63 B.C., famously defeated the conspiracy of the patrician Cataline and won a reputation as one of Rome’s greatest orators.

Julius Caesar’s Rise

When the victorious Pompey returned to Rome, he formed an uneasy alliance known as the First Triumvirate with the wealthy Marcus Licinius Crassus (who suppressed a slave rebellion led by Spartacus in 71 B.C.) and another rising star in Roman politics: Gaius Julius Caesar. After earning military glory in Spain, Caesar returned to Rome to vie for the consulship in 59 B.C. From his alliance with Pompey and Crassus, Caesar received the governorship of three wealthy provinces in Gaul beginning in 58 B.C.; he then set about conquering the rest of the region for Rome.

After Pompey’s wife Julia (Caesar’s daughter) died in 54 B.C. and Crassus was killed in battle against Parthia (present-day Iran) the following year, the triumvirate was broken. With old-style Roman politics in disorder, Pompey stepped in as sole consul in 53 B.C. Caesar’s military glory in Gaul and his increasing wealth had eclipsed Pompey’s, and the latter teamed with his Senate allies to steadily undermine Caesar. In 49 B.C., Caesar and one of his legions crossed the Rubicon, a river on the border between Italy from Cisalpine Gaul. Caesar’s invasion of Italy ignited a civil war from which he emerged as dictator of Rome for life in 45 B.C.

From Caesar to Augustus

Less than a year later, Julius Caesar was murdered on the ides of March (March 15, 44 B.C.) by a group of his enemies (led by the republican nobles Marcus Junius Brutus and Gaius Cassius). Consul Mark Antony and Caesar’s great-nephew and adopted heir, Octavian, joined forces to crush Brutus and Cassius and divided power in Rome with ex-consul Lepidus in what was known as the Second Triumvirate. With Octavian leading the western provinces, Antony the east, and Lepidus Africa, tensions developed by 36 B.C. and the triumvirate soon dissolved. In 31 B.C., Octavian triumped over the forces of Antony and Queen Cleopatra of Egypt (also rumored to be the onetime lover of Julius Caesar) in the Battle of Actium. In the wake of this devastating defeat, Antony and Cleopatra committed suicide.

By 29 B.C., Octavian was the sole leader of Rome and all its provinces. To avoid meeting Caesar’s fate, he made sure to make his position as absolute ruler acceptable to the public by apparently restoring the political institutions of the Roman republic while in reality retaining all real power for himself. In 27 B.C., Octavian assumed the title of Augustus, becoming the first emperor of Rome.

Age of the Roman Emperors

Augustus’ rule restored morale in Rome after a century of discord and corruption and ushered in the famous pax Romana–two full centuries of peace and prosperity. He instituted various social reforms, won numerous military victories and allowed Roman literature, art, architecture and religion to flourish. Augustus ruled for 56 years, supported by his great army and by a growing cult of devotion to the emperor. When he died, the Senate elevated Augustus to the status of a god, beginning a long-running tradition of deification for popular emperors.

Augustus’ dynasty included the unpopular Tiberius (14-37 A.D.), the bloodthirsty and unstable Caligula (37-41) and Claudius (41-54), who was best remembered for his army’s conquest of Britain. The line ended with Nero (54-68), whose excesses drained the Roman treasury and led to his downfall and eventual suicide. Four emperors took the throne in the tumultuous year after Nero’s death; the fourth, Vespasian (69-79), and his successors, Titus and Domitian, were known as the Flavians; they attempted to temper the excesses of the Roman court, restore Senate authority and promote public welfare. Titus (79-81) earned his people’s devotion with his handling of recovery efforts after the infamous eruption of Vesuvius, which destroyed the towns of Herculaneum and Pompeii.

Under Antoninus Pius (138-161), Rome continued in peace and prosperity, but the reign of Marcus Aurelius (161–180) was dominated by conflict, including war against Parthia and Armenia and the invasion of Germanic tribes from the north..

The reign of Nerva (96-98), who was selected by the Senate to succeed Domitian, began another golden age in Roman history, during which four emperors–Trajan, Hadrian, Antoninus Pius, and Marcus Aurelius–took the throne peacefully, succeeding one another by adoption, as opposed to hereditary succession. Trajan (98-117) expanded Rome’s borders to the greatest extent in history with victories over the kingdoms of Dacia (now northwestern Romania) and Parthia. His successor Hadrian (117-138) solidified the empire’s frontiers (famously building Hadrian’s Wall in present-day England) and continued his predecessor’s work of establishing internal stability and instituting administrative reforms.

Decline and Disintegration

The decadence and incompetence of Commodus (180-192) brought the golden age of the Roman emperors to a disappointing end. His death at the hands of his own ministers sparked another period of civil war, from which Lucius Septimius Severus (193-211) emerged victorious. During the third century Rome suffered from a cycle of near-constant conflict. A total of 22 emperors took the throne, many of them meeting violent ends at the hands of the same soldiers who had propelled them to power. Meanwhile, threats from outside plagued the empire and depleted its riches, including continuing aggression from Germans and Parthians and raids by the Goths over the Aegean Sea.

The reign of Diocletian (284-305) temporarily restored peace and prosperity in Rome, but at a high cost to the unity of the empire. Diocletian divided power into the so-called tetrarchy (rule of four), sharing his title of Augustus (emperor) with Maximian. A pair of generals, Galerius and Constantius, were appointed as the assistants and chosen successors of Diocletian and Maximian; Diocletian and Galerius ruled the eastern Roman Empire, while Maximian and Constantius took power in the west.

The stability of this system suffered greatly after Diocletian and Maximian retired from office. Constantine (the son of Constantius) emerged from the ensuing power struggles as sole emperor of a reunified Rome in 324. He moved the Roman capital to the Greek city of Byzantium, which he renamed Constantinople. At the Council of Nicaea in 325, Constantine made Christianity (once an obscure Jewish sect) Rome’s official religion.

Roman unity under Constantine proved illusory, and 30 years after his death the eastern and western empires were again divided. Despite its continuing battle against Persian forces, the eastern Roman Empire–later known as the Byzantine Empire–would remain largely intact for centuries to come. An entirely different story played out in the west, where the empire was wracked by internal conflict as well as threats from abroad–particularly from the Germanic tribes now established within the empire’s frontiers like the Vandals (their sack of Rome originated the phrase “vandalism”)–and was steadily losing money due to constant warfare.

Rome eventually collapsed under the weight of its own bloated empire, losing its provinces one by one: Britain around 410; Spain and northern Africa by 430. Atilla and his brutal Huns invaded Gaul and Italy around 450, further shaking the foundations of the empire. In September 476, a Germanic prince named Odovacar won control of the Roman army in Italy. After deposing the last western emperor, Romulus Augustus, Odovacar’s troops proclaimed him king of Italy, bringing an ignoble end to the long, tumultuous history of ancient Rome. The fall of the Roman Empire was complete.

Roman Architecture

Roman architecture and engineering innovations have had a lasting impact on the modern world. Roman aqueducts, first developed in 312 B.C., enabled the rise of cities by transporting water to urban areas, improving public health and sanitation. Some Roman aqueducts transported water up to 60 miles from its source and the Fountain of Trevi in Rome still relies on an updated version of an original Roman aqueduct.

Roman cement and concrete are part of the reason ancient buildings like the Colosseum and Roman Forum are still standing strong today. Roman arches, or segmented arches, improved upon earlier arches to build strong bridges and buildings, evenly distributing weight throughout the structure.

Roman roads, the most advanced roads in the ancient world, enabled the Roman Empire—which was over 1.7 million square miles at the pinnacle of its power—to stay connected. They included such modern-seeming innovations as mile markers and drainage. Over 50,000 miles of road were built by 200 B.C. and several are still in use today.

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